COMORE is a joint research team INRIA (Research Unit of Sophia-Antipolis, France) and CNRS, (Laboratory of Biological Oceanography and Marin Plankton Ecology, UMR 7093/ Université P.M. Curie, Villefranche sur Mer, France).

The endeavor of Comore is to develop and apply methods from control theory (feedback control, estimation, identification, optimal control, game theory) and from the theory of dynamical systems, to the mathematical modeling of living exploited resources (renewable resources) and their management. We apply and validate our results to various fields: phytoplankton growth, bioprocesses, wastewater treatment processes, pest control, fisheries...

Comore is a common research team with the CNRS, UMR 7093, Team: Analysis and Simulation of the Functioning of Ecosystems (Station Zoologique, Villefranche sur Mer).

Research themes:

Methodology:

Mathematical properties of models in biology: mathematical studies of models and of their global behavior.

Tools for modeling in biology: model design, validation, parameter identification.

Software sensors for biological systems: using the model and on-line measurements, we estimate the variables that are not measured directly.

Control and regulation for biological systems: we design laws to keep a variable at a given level, or to optimize the yield of the system.

Fields of application:

Modeling and control of the growth of the marine phytoplankton: we develop a chemostat (open bioreactor where algae or cells grow on a substrate) fully automated and managed by computers. The growth of the plankton is the basis of all the production of the organic matter of the oceans (fishes, etc), and plays a key role in the carbon cycle.

Modeling, estimation and control of bioreactors: the bioreactors have a growing importance in many domains related to the human environment: alimentary (food production), pharmaceuticals (production of medicine), environment (waste water treatment), etc.

Dynamics and control of ecosystems, of fisheries: we build models for ecosystems (insects, fishes) and try to regulate them optimally.

Modeling of metabolic and genetic networks.

National, international and industrial relations

Collaboration with IFREMER (Nantes), INRA (BIA Montpellier, LBE Narbonne), Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, LODYC (Paris).

Participation in the French group CoReV (Modèles et théories pour le Contrôle de Ressources Vivantes, Models and Control of Living Resources).

Collaboration with Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada), Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgique), University of Marrakech (Marocco), University of Twente (Netherlands).

European project IST TELEMAC on waste-water treatment.

COMORE is interested in the mathematical modeling of biological systems, more particularly of ecosystems subject to a human action (the framework is thus that of renewable resources). It is now clear that it is important to understand the working of these complex dynamical systems in order to regulate the exploitation of these resources by man. Our conceptual framework is that of Control Theory: a system, described by state variables, with inputs (action on the system), and outputs (the measurements available on the system). In our case, the system is an ecosystem, modeled by a mathematical model (generally a differential equation). Its variables are, for example, the number or the density of populations. The inputs can be the actions which one exerts on the ecosystem: e.g. action of man ( fishing effort, introduction of food, etc), or action of an external factor (pollution, light, etc). The outputs will be some product that one can collect from this ecosystem (harvest, capture, production of a biochemical product, etc), or some measurements (number of individuals, concentrations, etc).

This approach begins with the mathematical modeling of the system. This stage is fundamental and difficult, because one does not have rigorous laws as in physics. We develop techniques to identify and validate the structure of a model from a set of available noisy measurements. This approach is based on the qualitative analysis of the data (extrema, relative position,...) that we use to build a model able to reproduce the same qualitative pattern. We work also on methods dedicated to the identification of the mathematical functions that link the dynamics of a state variable to other variables. Finally we verify that the model satisfies some biological constraints: for example the concentrations must remain positive. A fundamental problem is that of the validation, or invalidation, of these models: how to accept, with a certain precision, a model by comparing it with noisy experimental data ? The traditional approach, which consists of identifying the parameters of the model by minimizing a criterion of variation between the outputs of the model and the data, is often inefficient. We are developing new methods more pertinent for the biologists.

From a model that synthesizes the behavior of such a complex nonlinear biological system, we can study its properties and understand the way it works. One seeks to study the qualitative behavior of the system, the existence of equilibria, their stability, the existence of periodic solutions... These qualitative questions are fundamental because they tell us whether or not the system is viable (if the model does not predict the extinction of any species, etc). Specific problems are posed by the biological origin of the models: functions or parameters are uncertain, or unknown; what can we say on the behavior of the model? Often, the models have a strong structure belonging to a general class of systems, for which one develops adapted techniques: for example the well-known models of Lotka-Volterra in dimension n, describing the interactions between n species.

Once the dynamics of the considered living system has been understood we consider problems of regulation: how to keep a variable at a given level. This is important for example in the framework of waste water treatment where the pollution levels are imposed by laws. The main problem that we have to address is to try to control a complex system when the model is uncertain. We work mainly on a class of biological systems: the bioreactors that have a growing importance in many domains related to the human environment: alimentary (food production), pharmaceuticals (production of medicine), environment (waste water treatment, plankton study), etc. The strong structure of these systems for which the hydraulic flow plays an important role is used in order to derive controllers.

Finally we develop observers that use the model and on-line measurements to estimate asymptotically the variables that are not measured directly. These so called "software sensors" can help the monitoring of some systems but also replace some expensive measurements. We are faced with the problem of various uncertainties that are specific to biological modeling: the model is uncertain (parameters, functions), but also the inputs can be uncertain and the outputs highly variable. We have to deal therefore with these uncertainties in the design of the observers. We have developed robust observers that assume that some parameter or input belongs to a given interval. The observer then asymptotically estimates intervals for the state variables. Other estimators are considered also.

The methods that we develop are validated and tested on several applications.

Of course, these ``applications'' also generate methodological problems that we consider (see the above section); they can give rise to fundamental research problems for biology that have to be considered in collaboration with biologists.

Growth of the Marine Plankton

We work in collaboration with the Station Zoologique of the CNRS (Villefranche-sur-Mer, France), which has developed a chemostat (open bioreactor where algae or cells grow on a substrate) fully automated and managed by computers; this system is well adapted to the application of the methods resulting from the theory of control. Our current work consists of studying and validating models of growth for the plankton in a variable environment (light, food, etc). The growth of plankton is the basis for all production of organic matter in the oceans (fishes, etc); however, the existing traditional models (Monod, Droop) are often unsatisfactory. We seek to obtain models valid during the transitory stages, away from the equilibrium.

Waste Water Treatment Processes

In collaboration with the Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology of INRA (Narbonne, France), we work on activated sludge wastewater treatment plants and on anaerobic digesters. We build dynamical models and we design robust observers that take into account the large uncertainties encountered in this field. As an example, the amount of waste water to treat, which is an important input, is rarely measured. The software sensors are used to monitor the processes and help to detect a failure.

Ecosystems and Fisheries

The scale of the problems changes here; data are rare and noisy. We consider (in collaboration with IFREMER Nantes) some important methodological problems: how to model the stock-recruitment relationship of the fish (the relationship between the number of fertile adults and eggs they produce). How does one optimize the exploitation of fisheries with respect to some criteria? We consider also (with INRA) problems of biological control, e.g. the introduction of ladybirds to control pests bugs) in a greenhouse.

Metabolic and genomic networks

This application is more recent, but has many links with our previous work: in fact, we consider large networks made of small biological nonlinear elements (ecosystems, metabolic network, genes network, ...) and are interested in methods enabling us to describe the dynamical behavior of the system. The classical methods are difficult to apply, because the dimension is too high. We are searching for more qualitative methods, that use for example the linear substructure (the graph) of the network, and/or the monotony of interactions; we try to reduce the system; finally, we describe the system as made by ``idealized'' nonlinearities, such as step functions; the resulting piecewise linear system is more amenable to a qualitative description.

We build some software as a tool for modeling, that could be of some help to biologists or modelers. The emphasis is on the interaction with the user. We also build more pedagogical softwares, aiming at demonstrating some point of modeling or control.

Moreover, we have developed an innovative Java software aiming at the coordination of several computers acquiring experimental data on line and monitoring experimental devices. This is applied to the automated chemostat in Villefranche-sur-Mer.

Study of structured models of cell growth

Macroscopic unstructured mathematical models are often employed to
describe cell growth in continuous culture devices, so called
chemostats. This approach
is based on very strong assumptions which cannot be able to characterize the
physiological state of the whole cell population. Then, another modeling
approach is required in order to adequately represent this physiological
state. In fact, macroscopic or microscopic structured models are very
efficient for this purpose.

Indeed, our first interest is a macroscopic description of the whole cell
population growth during its cycle, taking into account the total number or
the total biomass of cells. The structuration of the model is done with
respect to the cell position in its cycle.
This kind of modeling allows richer mathematical behavior than classical unstructured
models. Indeed, as oscillatory behaviors can be observed in biological
experiences, we show that the model with numbers have a limit cycle. To prove
the existence of a closed orbit, properties of competitive systems,
and the Bendixson criterion are used

Then, a description of the cell growth based on biological
mechanisms is studied. The structuration of this model is done with respect to
metabolized and un-metabolized components. Moreover, cell ageing and cell respiration are taken into
account. The mathematical study of this model gives the existence of either a
global asymptotic equilibrium or a non trivial periodic orbit. To prove this,
properties of loop systems, Poincaré - Bendixson theorem and Dulac criterion
are used

Mathematical study of a wastewater model.

A classical model of wastewater treatment is studied which describes an activated sludge process in which the substrate is removed by suspended one bacterial population. Three phenomena are considered: The reaction kinetics in the aerator linked to microbial growth, the substrate degradation and the recycle of the biomass. For this model, we study the basic properties of invariance, dissipation, and persistence and we prove that under a condition on parameters, there exists a interior equilibrium point which is globally asymptotically stable. Furthermore, by using properties of cooperative dynamical systems, we prove that the model is robust in the sense that when the growth rate function is not well known, but only its upper and lower bounds, we prove that there is an invariant interior cube.

Model design and identification

We have developed methods to estimate the model of a system involving mass transfers between compartments

Our modeling approach focuses either on the determination of the pseudo-stoichiometric matrix

In order to test the possible structures for reaction rates

In order to validate the qualitative behavior of a dynamical model, a method has been developed to link the
signs of the jacobian matrix with the possible succession of the extrema of all the state variables and with their
position toward reference values such as equilibria

Finally we have developed a method for determining the experimental conditions to be performed in order to better
distinguish the answer from a set of models. This methodology, based on
interval computation, finally leads to a
criterion updated by the new available data assessing the validity associated to each model

Model reduction

The goal of this work is to reduce the order of state space models describing
large biological or chemical networks. The state equations are assumed to be
(generally) nonlinear, time-invariant, ordinary differential equations which
build a modular structure together. This structure should be preserved during
reduction, which can be achieved by applying existing reduction methods to
modular parts of the whole system. As a first step, we consider balancing
linear and nonlinear methods.

Multi-observers

We developed Bayesian observers

We designed so-called bundle of observers

Hybrid observers for uncertain systems

We built bounded error observers for a common class of partially known bioreactor models in two dimensions. The main idea is to build hybrid bounded observers ``between'' the high gain observer, which has an adjustable convergence rate but requires a perfect knowledge of the model, and the asymptotic observer which is very robust to uncertainty but with a fixed convergence rate. We build an hybrid bounded error observer which reconstructs the two states variables in two steps : the first step gives a fast convergence rate but an error depending on the knowledge of the model; the second step gives the switch to an observer similar to the asymptotic one, converging at a fixed convergence rate towards an error as small as we want. Thus, we obtain a better convergence rate for the estimated states than the classical asymptotic observer.

Moreover, it is possible to generalize this hybrid observer to
higher dimensional systems. The main hypotheses are that the error of the model is
on the penultimate unmeasured variables and the last variable is a linear
combination of the state variables verifying a linear differential
equation

Stabilization and Adaptive Regulation for Uncertain Positive Systems

A positive system is a system of ordinary differential equations, which
variables remain structurally positive (or non-negative) for all positive time.
We consider the control problem for some

Moreover, as we aim at choosing the stable equilibrium value in spite of
some parameters uncertainties, we derived an adaptive control law

Control of competition in the chemostat

We consider the problem of feedback control of
competition between two species with one substrate in the chemostat with nonmonotone growth functions. Without control,
the generic behavior is competitive exclusion. The aim is to find a feedback
control of the dilution rate, depending only on the total biomass such that
coexistence holds. We obtain a sufficient condition for the global asymptotic stability
of an unique equilibrium point in the positive orthant for a three dimensional
differential system which arises from this controlled competition model

Nonlinear control

F. Grognard studied the computation of the switching times of the time-optimal
control law for linear systems with bounded control. He extended a result
that he obtained during his PhD Thesis, and that was only valid for systems
with real poles to systems with complex poles (

F. Grognard also studied the design of orbitally stable zero-dynamics for a
class of cascade nonlinear systems during his post-doctoral stay at the
Laboratoire d'Automatique de Grenoble (

Bio-economy of fishery

This work is done as participation of the project-team in an European
contract (BEMMFISH). The aim of the European contract is to develop a decision
tool for managing fishery in Mediterranean countries. The tool developed
should includes both biological and economic aspects. The
objective of our participation in the contract is to analyze the impact of
the decentralization of the decision, using a game theory
approach. Usually the search of ``optimal'' behavior of the agent is done by
using optimization or optimal control. Nevertheless, as in many economic
activities, this approach may not be the most relevant due to the non
cooperation of the agents. As a matter of
fact there exists a high level of concurrence in this activity, at different
levels (countries (for trans boundary stocks), harbor, fleets, and vessels),
and the ``optimal'' behavior may be different when the decision is
decentralized, i.e. when each agent takes its own decision.

The model developed in BEMMFISH takes lot of details into account and consequently is far too complex to be used for a game theory approach. We have based our approach on a more simple model. We started from a classical global model (Schafer model) and added an economic loop. Then we analyzed the Nash equilibrium of the agents at equilibrium of the system. We studied the impact of the level of decentralization (what happens to the behavior and consequently to the stock when the number of decision makers increases), and the impact of the introduction of economic aspects in the evaluation function of the agents.

A game theory approach for pricing in electricity spot market

The deregulation of the market of electricity in European countries, initiated in December 1996, has caused a lot of modifications and new problems in this field. Among those is the emergence of the new spot markets of electricity. The special features of electricity, in particular the fact that it cannot be stored, implies that the classical market analysis methods are not well adapted. The specificity of these markets are closed to the pollution right markets that start to appear as a consequence of the application of the Kyoto protocol. For these new markets, new approaches have to be explored.

We have analyzed a simple model with one market
and

A model which describes growth of phytoplankton while light and nitrogen are
both deficient was
developed and studied Rhodomonas salina. The effect of
temperature was also introduced in the model.
The previous model was coupled to hydrodynamical models. A 3-D model (SYMPHONIE, in collaboration with
the Centre for Oceanography of Marseille, Y. Leredde ) and 1D model (with the LOBSTER model issued from
the LODYC, in collaboration with Marina Levy). The 1D model was calibrated using data from the DYFAMED
experiments. These models were used to generate lagrangian trajectories followed by the model, and which
should be reproduced in the computer-controlled experimental chemostats

A set of 18 models was developed and studied to describe the coupling between photosynthesis and calcification for algae (coccolithophorids) that are responsible for very high carbon fluxes in the ocean. The qualitative study of the model showed that the standard hypotheses usually made by physiologists disagree with observed behavior.

Nonlinear Control for phytoplankton's growth in the chemostat

The chemostat is able to maintain alive a phytoplanktonic population in most of the various environmental conditions found in the oceans. However, the device becomes really sensitive as nutrient rich environmental conditions are to be reproduced. Indeed, such conditions makes phytoplanktonic population's future life hazardous, due to the chemostat's technology itself.

We propose then a control law able to reduce this structural sensitivity and
based only on qualitative structural properties of the classical Droop model,
work presented in

Anaerobic digestion

Within the TELEMAC European project

Software sensors (asymptotic, interval based or bayesian) have been developed based on the possible sets of
measurements

Bioprocesses control

Within the context of the TELEMAC, dedicated to anaerobic waste water treatment bioprocesses, the main problem remains the structural instability of such processes. Indeed, these efficient WWTPs are well known to have two stable ways to operate in, depending on the process conditions: one is interesting for water treatment (the bacterial population is maintained alive, purifying waste water) while the other is not (the bacterial population is removed from the reactor, wastes being no more consumed). Considering the conditions of such a process at a particular moment, it is almost impossible to predict which operating condition would be reached in the future, rendering the use of such processes hazardous.

We proposed a feedback control taking advantage of
online measurements of biogas production (that is directly related to biomass
activity). This controller structurally achieves the global stabilization of an equilibrium
point corresponding to working conditions: it ensures that waste water is purified by the
bacterial population. Results are obtained for the classical AMOCO model
developed by O. Bernard et al. and validated in real life on the fully
instrumented anaerobic process located at the ``Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de
l'Environnement'' of the INRA. A theoretical version of this result has been
published

Following the same approach, we presented an adaptive version of this control
for simple bioprocesses suffering from modeling uncertainties. Results are
structural stabilization of the processes towards a chosen equilibrium value,
despite some parameter uncertainties

Biological control

In collaboration with INRA Antibes team « Biology of Interacting Populations », we study models of biological control. Our work concerns the use of the
ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera :
Coccinellidae) against the aphid A. gossypii (Homoptera : Aphididae) inside
greenhouses. Our research was rather theoretical this year, consisting in
trying to apply methods from optimization and dynamical programming to a
simple model

Models of fisheries

Marion Verdoit (IFREMER) defended her thesis, done under the codirection of D. Pelletier (IFREMER) ; the second part of this thesis is devoted to the modeling of exploited resources dynamics, with an application to Celtic Sea whiting.

We describe a spatio-temporal model of the whiting population dynamics, constructed from the results of the preceding chapters in the thesis. It is a spatialized, linear, discrete time and multisite model, whose main objective is to test and explore a variety of management measures consisting in reducing or reallocating fishing effort according to areas and/or seasons characteristic of species life cycles.

However, many processes occurring in population dynamics are nonlinear, thus
we introduced a nonlinear model. It is studied more theoretically to evaluate
the global asymptotic stability of a class of nonlinear population models,
in discrete time and without spatial component. This model is again applied to
whiting population of the Celtic Sea

Metabolic networks

Our work has consisted in an equilibria and stability analysis of two families of metabolic networks whose models were given by a set of mass-balanced based differential equations.

The first class consists in simple metabolic pathways which are
made up of a sequence of mono-molecular enzyme-catalysed reactions as
where

Moreover, the last metabolite (

The second class of systems is made of metabolic networks whose graphic
representation
(with the different metabolites
as nodes and the different reactions as oriented edges) is an
arborescence with

GDyn: dynamics of genetic regulatory networks

As part of the GDyn project of Actions de Recherche Coopérative (ARC) of
INRIA, we are studying a class of piecewise-linear dynamical systems,
et al et al (HELIX, INRIA
Rhône-Alpes) and will be applied to the study of regulatory networks
underlying transcription in the bacteria E. coli and
Synechocystis.

Software aiming at centralising data and managing a set of automatons associated to a bioprocess has been developed. Based on Java, it allows remote monitoring and allows us to apply a control strategy. This software is in use for the management of the chemostat at Villefranche-sur-Mer.

Software whose role is to simulate an anaerobic digestion process is currently being developed. It is aimed at teaching an operator how to manage it. The player can try a strategy, and compare with automatic controllers. This software is linked to the European project Telemac.

The European project TELEMAC (Tele-monitoring and Advanced Tele-control of
High-Yield Wastewater Treatment Plants) is coordinated by O. Bernard (Comore)
from the scientific point of view and B. Le Dantec (Ercim) for administration
(see

Partners are ERCIM, INRIA COMORE, INRA (Laboratoire des Biotechnologies de l'environnement, Narbonne), APPLITEK (captors, Belgium), Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Gent University, Belgique), Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC), Information Technology Department, (England), SPES (Information technologies, Italy), University of Santiago de Compostela (USC)(Spain), ENEA Waste water Treatment and Water Cycle Unit (Italy), AGRALCO ( Spain), PSPc (Belgium), Tequila SAUZA S.A. (Mexico), The University of Guadalajara (UDG) (Mexico), ALLIED DOMECQ SPIRITS and WINE LTD. (DOMECQ UK), Allied Domecq Brasil Industria e Comercio Limitada (Brazil).

The TELEMAC projects is aiming at developing a general, but adaptable, remote supervision and monitoring system for water treatment. By using a network of smart sensors and web technologies, this project focuses on bringing new methodologies coming from the IST field to the water treatment units. The framework of the TELEMAC project will integrate the data collected by the sensors, detect fault or abnormal working conditions, and activate model based controllers to optimise the technology of anaerobic depollution and solve its unstability.

APPLE:A. Sciandra is the responsible for the project APPLE (Adaptation of Photosynthesis: Parametrisation from Laboratory Experiments) in the framework of PROOF (PROduction Océanique et Flux). COMORE participates in the project, funded by INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) .ARC GDyn:COMORE is a participant in the Action de Recherche Coopérative GDyn, funded by INRIA. J.-l. Gouzé coordinates the action with H. de Jong (HELIX INRIA). The aim is the analysis of piecewise linear models of gene networks (seehttp://www-sop.inria.fr/comore/arcgdyn/arcgdyn-eng.html .Action ACI IMPBIO BacAttract:COMORE is a participant in this action funded by the Ministère de la Recherche. The aim is the modelling and analysis of some well known gene networks.Action ACI IMPBIO MathResoGen:COMORE is a participant in this action funded by the Ministère de la Recherche. The aim is the analysis of metabolic networks.Action Bioinformatique:O. Bernard is responsible for the SEMPO project funded by the Action Bioinformatique (common action funded by several research institutes). The Laboratoire d'Océanographie et Biogéochimie CNRS de Marseille also participates.AS Asinbio:COMORE is a participant in the Action Spécifique ``Observers for systems with unknown inputs'' of the RTP50 ``STIC et Environnement'' funded by the CNRS.COREV:Comore is an active participant in the research group COREV (Modèles et théories pour le contrôle de ressources vivantes et la gestion de systèmes écologiques), seehttp://www.inapg.fr/ens_rech/bio/Ecologie/corev/corev-accueil.htm .Seminar:Jean-Luc Gouzé, Olivier Bernard et Antoine Sciandra organize a regular seminar « Modelling and control of ecosystems » at the station zoologique of Villefranche-sur-Mer or at INRIA.

Participation in the European project BEMMFISH: ``Bio-economic modelling of Mediterranean fisheries'' (O. Pourtallier). Duration 3 years.

Gorka Merino from ICM (Instituto de Ciences del Mar, Barcelona, Spain) has been invited for one month. He worked on game theory approach of fishery management, in relation with the BEMMFISH European project.

Asma Karama (1 month) University of Marrakech- "Hybrid modelling of bioprocesses using mass balance models and neural networks"

Alain Vande Wouwer (2 days)- University of Mons, Belgium

H. de Jong (INRIA Helix, France, two weeks)

F. Mazenc (INRIA Conge, three weeks)

Georges Zaccour, from GERAD, HEC (Montreal, Canada) had a been invited for 3 days.

J.L. Gouzé is a member of the expert committee for Aquae INRA/Cemagref projects, for RTP50 CNRS ``STIC et Environnement'', of scientific committes for Alcala 2nd international conference on mathematical ecology and POSTA 2003. He organized invited sessions for these conferences.

He is a member of the `` Commission d'évaluation'' of INRIA and of the Commission Scientifique Spécialisée MBIA of INRA.

O. Bernard is the scientific responsible for the European project Telemac, and is in the technical committee of the CAB conferences.

Odile Pourtallier is a member of the executive committee of ISDG (International Society in Dynamic games).

J.L. Gouzé, O. Bernard et A. Sciandra gave two weeks of courses on mathematical models in biology at the DEA biological oceanography, Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI. J.L. Gouzé gave courses on dynamical systems, (15 h) and O. Bernard gave courses on modeling and classworks(20h).

J.L. Gouzé participated in a CIMPA school in Tlemcen (Algérie, May); he gave lectures on models of bioprocesses.

O.Bernard gave courses at ENS Lyon "Software sensors for biological systems", 3h, and USC (Spain) "modelling and monitoring biological systems", 9h.

Odile Pourtallier taught a class in game theory and a class in non-linear optimization to the master OSE (Optimization des Systèmes Énergétiques- Energetic system optimization) co-organized by HEDEC , l'École des Mines de Paris and the Creden, a class of optimization to the DESS IMAFA of the university of Nice Sophia Antipolis.

Ongoing theses:

V. Lemesle, « Observateurs pour des systèmes dynamiques non-linéaires issus de la biologie », UNSA

L. Mailleret, « Méthodes de l'Automatique non-linéaire pour le contrôle d'écosystèmes en bioréacteur », UNSA

L. Pawlowski, « Etude théorique et expérimentale de la croissance phytoplanctonique carencée par divers substrats », université P.M. Curie

M. Moisan « Méthodes d'identification et d'estimation pour des modèles biologiques », UNSA

G. Robledo « Etude et contrôle des réseaux trophiques », UNSA

Participation to PhD jurys: J.-L. Gouzé was the ``rapporteur'' for the HDR of D. Pelletier (Ifremer, Univ. Montpellier), and was in the jurys of Marion Verdoit (Paris VI) and Sophie Malherbe (Montpellier)

Conferences with proceedings are not repeated here.

JL Gouzé, workshop on gene dynamics in Marseille, November 27.

O.Bernard, GreenOcean, Villefranche-sur-mer, March, 10-14, Villefranche-sur-mer, France

Bourguet N, Goutx M, Van Wambeke F, Guigue C, Sciandra A, Gattuso J-P. (2003). Effects of increased CO2 partial pressure on the chemical composition and microbial degradation of the microalgae Emiliania huxleyi, EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 06-11.

Sciandra A, Harlay J, Lefèvre D, Lemée R, Rimmelin P, Denis M, Gattuso J-P. (2003a). Response of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi to elevated pCO2 under nitrate limitation, EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, April 06-11.

Some members of COMORE participated in the annual COREV meeting (see 8.1) and gave talks.