Mascotte is a joint team between Inria Sophia - Antipolis and the
laboratory I3s (Informatique Signaux et Systèmes Sophia - Antipolis)
which itself belongs to Cnrs (Centre national de la recherche
Scientifique) and Unsa (University of Nice - Sophia
Antipolis).

MASCOTTE is a joint team between INRIA Sophia - Antipolis and the laboratory I3S (Informatique Signaux et Systèmes Sophia - Antipolis) which itself belongs to CNRS (Centre national de la recherche Scientifique) and UNSA (University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis). Furthermore MASCOTTE is strongly associated with the center of research and development of France Télécom at Sophia - Antipolis via the CRC CORSO.

Its research fields are Simulation, Algorithmic, Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorial optimization with applications to telecommunication or transportation networks.

In particular, MASCOTTE has developed in the last four years both theoretical and applied tools for the design of heterogeneous networks of various types (like WDM, SDH, ATM, wireless, satellites, ...).

If the project aims to construct or design networks or communication algorithms it wants also to build software simulators or to implement algorithms but not to conceive protocols. The theoretical results can be applied to various situations and technologies.

The project uses tools and theory in the following domains: Discrete
mathematics, Algorithmic, Combinatorial Optimization and Simulation.
Typically, a telecommunication network (or an interconnection network)
is modeled by a graph. A vertex may represent either a processor, a
router, a switch or a person, and an edge (or arc) a connection
between the elements represented by the vertices. We can add more
information both on the vertices (for example what kind of switch is
used, optical or not, number of ports, equipment cost) and on the
edges (weights which might correspond to length, costs, bandwidth,
capacities) or colors on paths etc. According to the application,
various models can be defined and they have to be specified. This
modeling part is an important task. To solve the problems, in some
cases we can find polynomial algorithms: for example a maximum set of
disjoint paths between two given vertices is by Menger's theorem equal
to the minimum cardinality of a cut and it can be determined in
polynomial time using graph theoretic tools or flow theory or linear
programming. On the contrary, determining whether in a directed graph
there exists a pair of disjoint paths, one from

For the last five years the project has chosen as main domain of application Telecommunication leaving the domain of parallel computing. The project has also applications in the domain of ''transportation''. However, note that there is some overlap between the two domains; in particular theoretical tools and also communication problems are not really different if one considers the network of a parallel machine or a telecommunication network. Inside the telecommunication domain the applications we consider are strongly dependent on the interest of the industrial partners with whom we collaborate. For example, we are working with Alcatel Space Technologies on the design of fault-tolerant on-board network satellites, and also with a different group on the optimization of the access layer and planning of satellite communication. With France Télécom (and other partners) we have worked on the design of telecommunication backbone networks (either SDH/SONET, WDM, or ATM networks) and on various fault-tolerance (protection) problems (in particular in case of link failures) or grooming (grouping) of small traffic containers into bigger ones. We have also used the PROSIT simulation framework developed in the project both for applications to a road traffic simulator (in the OSSA E.U. project) or in the ASIMUT simulation environment for satellite telecommunication in particular with the CNES.

Prosit is a sequential and distributed application framework for discrete event simulation.http://www-sop.inria.fr/mascotte/prosit/ Prosituses object oriented techniques to allow for efficient development of complex discrete event simulation packages. It has been used as the simulation engine for the European projectsHipertransandOssa, devoted to high performance simulation of road traffic. It has also been at the heart of theAsimutsimulation environment developed byCnes(the French National Space Centre) for satellite telecommunication systems evaluation.Licenses of

Prosithave been sold toCnesand to Dassault Data Systems.

Mascopt : the main objective of thehttp://www-sop.inria.fr/mascotte/mascopt/ Mascopt(Mascotte Optimization) project is to provide a set of tools for network optimization problems. Examples of problems are routing, grooming, survivability, or virtual network design.Mascoptwill help implementing a solution to such problems by providing a data model of the network and the demands, libraries to handle data and ready to use implementation of existing algorithms or linear programs (e.g integral multicommodity flow).Mascoptis Open Source and intends to use the most standard technologies such as Java andxmlformat providing portability facilities. We finished to implement graph data structure, several basic algorithms working on graph and input/output classes.Mascoptalso provides some graphical tools to display graph results. We are currently writing network packages and performing experiments onwdmnetworks. A first application has been released which computes on-board networks with fault tolerance which is described after.

Several developments have been made on the road traffic simulator of
the Ossa E.U. project (Open Framework for Simulation of
Transport Strategies and Assessment), including a new Graphical User
Interface to replace the previous one based on non-open software for
which the sources where not available anymore.
This new interface was completely redesigned using the Java language
and the Koala Graphics library
, in order to improve the porting and
evolution capabilities of the simulation software. In the end, this
interface is expected to provide visualizations of the simulation with
a high level of details (e.g. animation of stand-alone vehicles, or
3D representations).

Eventually, in order to validate the parallel execution capabilities
of the simulator architecture, a new prototype has been developed
based on the C++// distributed programming library (Inria
software).
This prototype fully demonstrated that the software architecture of the
simulator is relevant for distributed simulations and that it significantly
improves simulation times for heavily time consuming simulations.

In the ``Constellations de Satellites'' partnership
contract (1999-2001), we designed a component-based architecture for
simulation of hierarchical, multi-level models of telecommunication
networks, the ASIMUT environment.
This new approach allows the simulation of telecommunication networks
that exhibit a high level of complexity. Simulators based on this
architecture combine network model elements each having several
levels of representation.
This environment was developed by Cnes Toulouse Space Agency
and Dassault Data Systèmes, using the Prosit simulation
framework. Nevertheless, ASIMUT is a large software platform, that
has now entered in a validation and improvement process, in which
Mascotte actively participates. For instance, Mascotte members
O. Dalle and P. Mussi participated in a one week beta-testing period
in CNES (Toulouse), during December 2002.

Besides this still active cooperation on ASIMUT, Mascotte was also
invited by CNES to contribute to the European Space Agency's
preliminary reflexion on the foundation of the New Media Support
Center (NMSC), the ESTEC project for a new european resource center
for system simulation

Discrete Event Simulation (DEVS) is a modeling formalism that was initially
proposed by Conception et Zeigler in 1988 to specify discrete event
systems. This formalism allows a hierarchical modeling of systems: on
one hand it allows the definition of atomic models for each system
component and on the other hand, it provides a coupling formalism to
associate atomic components and build higher level components that may
then be used themselves as atomic components. N. Giambiasi of LSIS
(Marseille) introduced a Generalization of this formalism, called
G-DEVS (1999) that extends the modeling capabilities of the DEVS
formalism. Mascotte initiated a cooperation with LSIS, the MOEDIG
project (supported by an INRIA COLOR funding) in order to study the
G-DEVS formalism benefits through an implementation in the PROSIT
simulation framework

Inside a telecommunication satellite, audio and video signals are routed through a switching network to amplifiers. Since it is impossible to repair a satellite, we choose to multiply the components that may be faulty, that is amplifiers and switches.

The first problem is to build a valid network which allows to route

In

A Hierarchical ring network (hrn) is obtained from a ring
network by appending at most one subsidiary ring to each node of the
ring and, recursively, to each node of each subsidiary ring (each node
belonging to at most 2 rings). In hrn with fixed depth and fixed
diameter, and thus answered an open problem from Aiello, Bhatt, Chung,
Rosenberg et Sataraman.

Designing a backbone network consists in computing paths for
each traffic unit and then in assigning resources along these paths.
The set of paths is chosen according to the technology, the protocol
or the quality of service constraints. For instance, optical backbones
use the wdm technology to take better advantage of the capacity
of the optical fibers often already installed. This is achieved
through multiplexing several wavelength channels onto the same
fiber. In wdm networks, the huge bandwidth available on an
optical fiber is divided into multiple channels. Each channel carries
bandwidth up to several gigabits per second. A minimum unit of
resource allocation is an optical channel, which consists of a path
and a wavelength assigned on each link along the path and is called a
lightpath. If wavelength translation is performed in optical
switching, then each channel may be assigned different wavelengths on
each link along the path; otherwise the wavelength continuity
constraint must be satisfied on all links along the path. Of course,
two lightpaths sharing a link must use different wavelengths on that
link.

In the following we stress the problems and solutions we have
investigated. This includes results for the wavelength routing and
coloring problem, for the traffic grooming problem and for the virtual
network embedding problem (with application to atm networks).

Motivated by the quest for efficient
algorithms for the Routing and Wavelength Assignment problem (RWA), we address approximations of the fractional multicommodity
flow problem which is the central part of a complex randomized
rounding algorithm for the integral problem. Through the use of
dynamic shortest path computations and other combinatorial approaches,
we improve on the best known algorithm for approximations of the
fractional multicommodity flow.

We addressed the design of multi-fiber optical networks. We show
that the wavelength assignment constraints change from peer conflicts
in mono-fiber networks to group conflicts in multi-fiber networks. We
developed a new model for the wavelength assignment problem based on
conflict hypergraphs which structurally capture the group
conflicts. This model allows for adapting hypergraph coloring
approximation algorithms to the wavelength assignment problem, and for
validating them on real world networks

Efficient optical routing aims to minimize the number of different wavelengths used in the network but also the number of electronic/optical conversions (hops for lightpaths). Another way for reducing the cost of the network is to group the traffic in such a way that some units of traffic may share some optical channels.

In wdm rings with All-to-All uniform
unitary traffic. The goal is to minimize the total number of sonet add-drop multiplexers (adms) required. We have shown
that this problem corresponds to a partition of the edges of the
complete graph into subgraphs, where each subgraph has at most ilp
program by restricting the search space.

In wdm networks with
multi-layer switches. We consider a node as an cplex optimization package on various
topologies such as actual networks like the Pan-European all optical
network as well as rings and meshes of various sizes.

Another network design issue is the Virtual Path Layout problem
(vpl for short). vpl consists in embedding a logical
topology into a physical one. Our first concern was
with atm networks but the results extend to other types of
networks as well. The logical topology models the set of communication
requests. For each communication request a path is associated into the
physical network and we measure the quality of service as the maximum
length of these paths, i.e the virtual network diameter denoted by
All-to-All
communication instance over path networks . We also
obtained asymptotic bounds for the cycle network (sharp bounds
when

We address the problem of network design for which we present a new class of
valid inequalities. These inequalities arise from the "blossom" constraints
of the b-matching problem. We show that the separating problem over this
class of inequalities can be solved in a polynomial time of the dimension of
the space in which the problem is defined

During the seventies, new needs came with the numerisation of
networks. To meet these needs, the SDH technology was standardized by
the UIT-T. A set of interconnected rings is a possible topology for a
SDH network which provides a high protection degree. We found an
heuristic method to design such a ring topology, given a set of
geographical sites to be connected within the same network

We address here the fault tolerance problems, i.e. the network has to be able to handle the traffic when a fault of a node or a link appears. We consider that in this case the rerouting of the impacted flows has to be done from end to end.

One specific problem is the one of wdm-network protection
with subnetworks, particularly loop ones

In

In Survivable Network Design problem).
We prove the first explicit lower bound on the approximability of this problem.
On the other hand, we design an effective approximation algorithm if the input
graph satisfies the sharpened Network Augmentation problem).

In controlled by the
coalition

In

In

In

Given a set Min Assignment problem is to find
a range assignment of minimum power consumption provided that any
pair of stations can communicate in at most Min
Assignment problem

In Range assignement
problem in ad-hoc wireless networks. This problem is known to be
NP-hard and approximable within a worst-case constant ratio by simply
computing the Minimum Spanning Tree of the graph underlying the
wireless network. The best known theoretical upper bound on this
ratio is 12. Based on the computation of a lower bound, an estimated
value of the approximation ratio is experimentally measured on a large
number of randomly generated instances. The results seems to indicate
that the ratio of 12 is largely overestimated.

In the channel assignment problem, the following situation occurs: we
need to assign radio frequency bands to transmitters (each station
gets one channel which corresponds to an integer). In order to avoid
interference, if two stations are too close, then the separation of
the channels assigned to them has to be at least two. Moreover, if two
stations are close (but not too close), then they must receive
different channels. A way to model these constraints is

New technologies and the deployment of mobile and nomadic services
naturally engender new route-discovery problems under changing
conditions over dynamic networks. Unfortunately, the temporal
variations in the topology of dynamic networks are hard to be
effectively captured in a classical graph model. We used evolving
graphs, which helps capture the dynamic characteristics of such
networks, in order to show that computing different types of strongly
connected components in dynamic networks is NP-Complete, and then
propose an algorithm to build all rooted directed minimum spanning
trees in strongly connected dynamic networks

We investigated the concepts of journeys in Evolving Graphs, which
captures both space and time constraints in routing problems. Journeys
where formalized in

Given a connected undirected multi-terminal flow network with

Orientations and colourings of graphs are related in different ways
but the deepness of these relations is not well
understood. One of the result relating orientations to colouring
is the Gallai-Roy Theorem. It states that the chromatic number of
a graph is the minimum over all its orientations of the order
(number of vertices) of a longest path. In 1982, Laborde, Payan et Xuong
formulated the following conjecture implying Gallai-Roy Theorem :
Every oriented graph contains a stable set intersecting every longest
paths. In

Another way to extend Gallai-Roy Theorem is in terms of
unavoidable substructures of

In

In

In

Hess and Iyer have studied the problem of enumerating all non
isomorphic constrained mixed models. They use their results in a SAS
macro to facilitate calculations in Burdick and Graybill's method
which allow to compute confidence intervals for variance
components. However, the validity domain of their macro is restricted
to models with five or fewer factors. Introducing a new algorithm
based upon previous work done about enumeration of posets, we manage
to enumerate all non isomorphic mixed models (constrained or not) with
nine or less factors, thereby extending the domain of validity of the
macro to mixed models with at most nine factors (

Ossa (Open Framework for Simulation of Transport
Strategies and Assessment), 2000-2003, was a RTD Project
supported by the Commission of the European Communities in the
framework of the Competitive And Sustainable Growth Program. The
aim of OSSA was to develop a truly open simulation framework where
different simulation-related modules and systems can get/feed
information from/to in real time. Partners are cities of Alicante
(Spain) and Manchester (UK), universities of Namur (Belgium) and
Westminster (UK), research centers KTI (Hungary), TRL (UK) and the
companies Etra (Spain), PTV (Germany), BKD and WS-Atkins (UK).

Contract with Alcatel Toulouse, 2001-2003, on
optimization of access layer and planning of satellite
communication, also in collaboration with the inria project
Mistral.

Contrat de recherche externalisé (cre ) with
France Télécom R&D, 2003-2005, on matching constrains for
the design of telecommunication networks. This contract covers mainly the
PhD grant of S. Petat.

Contrat de recherche collaborative (crc ) with
France Télécom R&D, 2003-2005.

As mentioned earlier, we have a strong collaboration with France Télécom R&D inside the CRC CORSO. This means that some researchers of MASCOTTE on one side and engineers of France Télécom R&D on the other side work together on specified subjects approved by a ''Comité de pilotage''. Among these subjects we can cite the design of telecommunication networks, the study of fault tolerance and the use of radio networks for bringing Internet in places where there is no ADSL.

Color action : ``Moedig'', 2003, on the development
of a simulation environment for discrete generalized events
models, in collaboration with the Lsis (Marseille).

(

Action Spécifique du Cnrs: ``Dynamo'', 2003, on
the modeling of dynamic networks.

Atip jeunes chercheurs Cnrs, August 2002 -
July 2004, on frequency allocation problems in cellular networks.

Aci sécurité: ``Presto'', 2003- 2006, on
survivability of communication networks, in collaboration with the
enst (Paris) and the limos (Clermont-Ferrand).

( http://www-sop.inria.fr/mascotte/David.Coudert/PRESTO/)

(see section 7.1)

European project RTN: ``Aracne'', 2000-2004, on
Approximation and Randomized Algorithms for Communication Networks,
in collaboration with the universities of Salerno (coordinator) and
Roma (Italy), Patras (Greece), Geneva (Switzerland) and Kiel
(Germany). The goal of this project is to study communications
problems and network designs from the algorithmic side.

European project Ist : ``Crescco'', 2002-2005,
on
critical resource sharing for cooperation in complex systems, in
collaboration with the universities of Salerno and Roma (Italy),
Patras (Greece, coordinator), Geneva (Switzerland) and Kiel (Germany).
Mascotte works essentially on the efficient use of bandwidth in WDM
networks (Workpackage 4).

( http://www.ceid.upatras.gr/faculty/kakl/crescco).

Proposal of a Network of Excellence: ``Saga'', 2003, on
structural and algorithmic aspects of communication networks, in
collaboration with 51 European research centers and 28 European
companies. Unfortunately, this proposal has not been accepted; but it
has strengthened the collaboration between various groups in Europe and
there was a successful workshop and the proposal will be resubmitted.

Cooperation Inria–Brazil: ``Regal'', 2003, on
algorithmic problems for telecommunication networks, in collaboration
with the Federal University of Ceara (Fortaleza, Brazil).

Cooperation Cnrs–Oxford,
2003-2005,
on frequency allocation problems in wireless networks, in
collaboration with the Mathematical Institute of Oxford University.

Funded by the Paca province.

One of the main objectives of this proposal done in 2003 was to
structure our collaboration with sfu, since members of both
teams have strong contacts (various visits of both side). Although
the formal project has not been accepted, many reciprocal visits
funded by Inria, Cnrs, ...have been performed.

Joe Peters (Simon Fraser University, Canada), 17/10/03 - 21/11/03.

Ricardo Correa (University of Fortaleza (Brazil), 20/08/03 - 20/10/03.

Joseph Yu (Simon Fraser University, Canada), 25/05/03 - 10/07/03.

Xavier Muñoz (UPC Barcelona, Spain), 07/07/03 - 18/07/03.

Aleksei Fishkin (University of Kiel, Germany), 27/09/03 - 04/10/03.

Hu Zhang (University of Kiel, Germany), 12/11/03 - 21/11/03.

J.-C. Bermond: S.F.U. Vancouver (Canada) 11/09/03-11/10/03.D. Coudert: UPC Barcelona (Spain), 08/01/03-28/01/03.F. Havet: Mac Gill, Montreal (Canada) October.R. Klasing: RWTH Aachen, Germany 16.03.-12.04.2003 and 01.07.-31.07.2003 and 23.11.-29.11.2003 ; University of Paderborn, Germany 16.06.-27.06.2003 and King's College London, United Kingdom 28/05-29/05/03 and 25/08-29/08/2003.

J-C. Bermond: member of Commission 3 duRnrt(Architectures de réseaux et systèmes de télécommunications) ; member of the Commission de Spécialistes de la 27&ieme; section de l'Unsa; substitute member of the Commissions de Spécialistes 27&ieme; section of UTC (université de Technologie de Compiègne) and Université de la Méditerranée (Aix-Marseille II) ; member of Comité des projets de l'I3s; nominated member of the Comités RTP (réseaux thématiques) du département STIC « Réseaux » et « Mathématiques de l'Informatique ».M. Cosnard: chair of the ACIGrid; substitute member of the Commission de Spécialistes 27&ieme; section ofEnsLyon ; chair of the conseil scientifique ofCines.D. Coudert: secretary for the project committee of the INRIA Sophia - Antipolis since April 2003.O. Dalle: member of the ``Commission de Spécialistes 27&ieme; section'' ofUnsa, member of the ``Commission du Développement Logiciel'' de l'INRIA Sophia Antipolis, member of the ``Comité Informatique'' of I3S, substitute member of the ``Commission des Utilisateurs des Moyens Informatiques'' of INRIA Sophia Antipolis.A. Ferreira: member of the commission de suivi doctoral de l'InriaSophia - Antipolis, of the CNRT Télécom à Sophia - Antipolis, of the Conseil de Laboratoire de l'I3sand of Commission d'Evaluation de l'Inria.P. Mussi: member of commission de spécialistes 27&ieme; section of l'Unsa, head of Public, industrial and international relations for Inria Sophia - Antipolis, member of Comité Technique Paritaire and Conseil Scientifique of l'Inriaand secrétaire national and trésorier local ofAgos.M. Syska: substitute member of the Conseil de Laboratoire ofI3s; member of the Comité Informatique ofI3s.

J-C. Bermond: Combinatorics Probability and Computing, Discrete Mathematics, Discrete Applied Mathematics, Journal of Graph Theory, Journal Of Interconnection Networks (Advisory Board), Mathématiques et Sciences Humaines, Networks, Parallel Processing Letters and theSiambook series on Discrete Mathematics.M. Cosnard: Editor-in-Chief of Parallel Processing Letters. Member of the Editorial Board of Parallel Computing, of Theory of Computational Systems (TOCS) and of IEEE TPDS.A. Ferreira:Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing(Academic Press),Parallel Processing Letters(World Scientific),Parallel Algorithms and Applications(Elsevier),Journal of Interconnection Networks(World Scientific).

M. Cosnard: Steering Committees: SPAA -Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures(2001-2004), PACT (Chair)Parallel Computing Technologies(2002-2005) - IFIP Working Group 10.3.A. Ferreira: Steering Committees: IEEE IPDPS (1999-2003), STACS (1997-2004), AlgoTel (2000-2006), ACM Dial M for Mobility (2000-2006).

D. Coudert, E. Deriche, A. Ferreira and H. Rivano, organized
the SAGA NoE Meeting, 13-14/02/03, Sophia - Antipolis.

M. Cosnard:PACT,IPDPS, Workshop on Grid Computing of EuroPar, Vice-chairman of HiPC (IEEE International High Performance Computing Conference), IEEE IPDPS (2002-2006).A. Ferreira:Clade, MWCN, Parco, Pbit, Pdcat, Renpar, WCSF, WEA.P. Mussi: member of program committees for ESMc2003 (The European Simulation and Modeling Conference), CSM2004 Conceptual Modeling and Simulation conference, International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networks (PDCN 2004), Majestic'03, CNDS 2003.

The following theses have been passed in 2003:

H. Rivano: « Algorithmique et télécommunications : Coloration et multiflot approchés et applications aux réseaux d'infrastructure », November 28, 2003 University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis.C. Touati: « Les principes d'équité appliqués aux réseaux de télécommunications », September 26, 2003 University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis.The following theses are in preparation :

G. Huiban: Dimensionnement de réseaux optiques;A. Jarry: Connexité et protection dans les réseaux de télécommunications;J.-F. Lalande: Dimensionnement et optimisation dans les réseaux de télécommunications;N. Morales: Méthodes d'approximation pour les problèmes de réseaux de télécommunications avec de contraintes économiques et de traffic incertain;S. Petat: Contraintes de couplages pour la conception de réseaux de télécommunications;J-S. Sereni: Coloration par listes appliquée à l'allocation de fréquences;M-E. Voge: Protection et groupage dans les réseaux de télécommunications.

M. Cosnard, J. Galtier and A. Ferreira: were members of the Ph.D. Committee of H. Rivano (University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis).M. Cosnard: was member of the H.D.R. Committee of J. Durand-Lose (University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis) and of the Ph.D Committee of A. Denis University of Rennes).A. Ferreirawas president of the Ph.D Committee of T. Garcia (University of Amiens).J. Galtier: was member of the Ph.D. Committee of C. Touati (University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis).R. Klasing: was member of the Ph.D. Committee of A. Navarra (Università di L'Aquila, Italy) (Reviewer of Thesis) and of Nicolas Lichiardopol (University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis).M. Syska: was member of the Ph.D. Committee of Nicolas Lichiardopol (University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis).

J-C. Bermond et M. Syska supervised the internship of Olivier de Rivoyre (

Dea Rsd) and of P. Cahier (EnsLyon)D. Coudert and H. Rivano supervised the internship of X. Roche (

EnsLyon).D. Coudertis supervising the internship of Marc Martinez de Albeniz (UPC Barcelona)O. Dalle and P. Mussi supervised the master of A. Acosta (

Enst Bretagne).J. Galtier supervised the internship of G. Joutel (

EnsLyon).F. Havet supervised the internship of L. Esperet (

EnsLyon) and of A. Gomez (University of Bogota, Columbia).R. Klasing supervised the masters of N. Morales (Chile) and A. Papadopoulos (Greece).

A. Laugier supervised jointly with M. Burlet the internship of M-E. Voge (

Dea Roco Grenoble).

The members of MASCOTTE strongly participate in a lot of teaching activities in undergraduate studies (DEUG, IUT, Licence Maîtrise, Engineering Schools like ESSI). The teaching is insured by members of the University as their teaching duties and for INRIA CNRS or PhD's as extra work. It represents more than 1000 hours per year.

For graduate studies, MASCOTTE was strongly involved in the creation of the DEA RSD (Réseaux and Systèmes Distribués) and now members of MASCOTTE teach both in the mandatory lectures and in 3 options of the DEA RSD. Members of MASCOTTE are also involved in teaching in other DEA's like the DEA MDFI of Marseille or in DESS like the DESS Telecoms or in the 3rd year of engineering schools. Altogether that represents around 200 hours per year.

The members of MASCOTTE supervise on the average around 20 internships per year at all levels (Maîtrise, Engineering School, DEA). The students come from various places in France as well as from abroad (e.g. Europe, Chile, United States, India). Some of the internship reports are listed in the bibliography under the heading miscellaneous.

J-C. Bermond: S.F.U. Vancouver, September.O. Dalle: Intl. Conference "Solutions Linux", Paris, CNIT la Défense, February.A. Ferreira: Colloquium ``Optimization et Télécoms'', Ecole Polytechnique, September. Seminars at LIRMM, LIFL, and LARIA, November and December.F. Havet: RAND03, Oxford, December and Bogota,Columbia.R. Klasing: Departmental Colloquium, RWTH Aachen, Germany, March; and Departmental Colloquium, University of Paderborn, Germany, June.H. Rivano: Euro/Informs 2003, Istanbul, Turkey.

J-C. Bermond, D. Coudert, A. Ferreira, F. Havet, A. Jarry, J-F. Lalande, S. Petat, H. Rivano, M. Syska and M-E. Vogeattended the meeting of theAciPRESTO Sophia - Antipolis November 14th.Members of Mascotte, SAGA NoE Meeting, 13-14/02/03, Sophia - Antipolis.J-C. Bermond, D. Coudert, H. Rivanoattended the Journées TAROT Paris, March.J-C. Bermond, D. Coudert, S. Perennes, M. Syska, 14/07/03, Marconi Selenia, Genova, Italy.J-C. Bermondattended the RTP meeting on networks in Saint Jean de Luz, February.D. Coudert, A. Ferreira, R.Klasing and H. Rivanoattended the Journées TAROT, Lyon, October.D. Coudert, M-E. Voge, ACI-SI meeting, 11-12/12/03, Rennes.O. Dalleattended the "Journée Technologies Emergentes" meeting, Paris, March 2003.O. Dalle and P. Mussiattended the "Journée du groupe Modélisation Multiple et Simulation" meeting, Marseille, 24/01.A. Ferreiraattended the meeting on ``Dynamic Wireless Networks at INRIA'', Porquerolles, September.A. Ferreiraattended the meeting of the Steering Committee of the CNRS RTP ``Réseaux'', Marseille, September.F. Havetattended the Journées Graphes et Algorithmique Dijon, April.P. Mussi: Inria Industrial day, Rocquencourt 16/01, Modélisation Multiple et Simulation national group (Marseille, 24/01, St-Etienne, 21/03, Bordeaux, 17/10), Telecom World'03, Geneva 14-15/10P. Mussi, D. Sagnolparticipated in the OSSA final meeting, Alicante (Spain) 23-25/02.S. Petatattended the Journée d'Optimisation Polyédrale in Marseille 22/05/03.

A. Acosta, P. Mussiattended Majestic'03, Marseille, 29-31/10.R. Klasing and M. Syskaattended the CRESCCO review meeting and workshop, January 30th - February 4th Paphos, Cyprus.A. Ferreira and M. Syska, CRESCCO Workshop, Santorini, Greece, June 4-6.J-C. Bermond, D. Coudert, J-F. Lalande, H. Rivano and M. Syskaattended the CRESCCO meeting and workshop, December 5th - December 8th Athens, Greece.A. Jarry, J-F. Lalande, A. Laugier, M. Syska, attended ROADEF in Avignon (France), 26-28/02.J-C. Bermond, J. Galtier and A. Jarryattended WiOPT03 in Sophia - Antipolis (March).S. Choplin, A. Ferreira, F. Havet, S. Petat, H. RivanoattendedAlgoTelin Banyuls (France) in May.O. Dalle, P. Mussiattended ESA workshop, Nordvijk 20-22/02.D. Coudert, attended the 7th IFIP Working Conference on Optical Network Design & Modeling (ONDM '03) in Budapest (Hungary) in February, the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '03) in Anchorage (AK, USA) in May, the 7th International Workshops on Interconnection Networks (IWIN '03) in Umea (Sweden) in June, the 10th Colloquium on Structural Information and Communication Complexity (SIROCCO 10) in Umea (Sweden) in june, and the Mountain Workshop on Algorithms (MWA) in Ordesa (Spain) in September.A. Ferreiraattended ICT in Papetee, AdHoc Now in Montreal, and WiOpt in Sophia - Antipolis.J. Galtierattended FOCS, Cambridge, MA, USA.F. Havetattended the Workshop Structural and Probabilistic Approaches to Graph Coloring, Banff, September.R. Klasingattended WMAN 2003 3rd International Workshop on Wireless, Mobile and Ad Hoc Networks (April), the 7th Mountain Workshop on Algorithms (MWA'03) Pescasseroli, Italy, May and Liverpool Algorithms Day LAD'03 May.A. Laugier and S. Petatattended INOC '03 in Evry (France) in October.H. Rivanoattended Euro/Informs 2003,stanbul, Turkey (July), WAOA 2003 (September) and ALGO 2003, Busapest, Hungary (September).P. Mussi, D. Sagnolattended OSSA workshop, Alicante (Spain) in February.C. Touatiattended ITC-18, Berlin, Germany August-September.

J-C. Bermondattended the School ING03 in Porquerolles in May.