NonA follows the research team ALIEN which was stopped at the end of 2010.
For engineers, a wide variety of information is not directly obtained through measurement. Some parameters (constants of an electrical actuator, delay in a transmission, etc) or internal variables (robot's posture, torques applied to a robot, localization of a mobile, etc) are unknown or are not measured. Similarly, more often than not, signals from sensors are distorted and tainted by measurement noises. In order to simulate, to control or to supervise processes, and to extract information conveyed by the signals, one has to estimate parameters or variables.
Estimation techniques are, under various guises, present in many parts of control, signal processing and applied mathematics. Such an important area gave rise to a huge international literature. However, from a general point of view, the performance of an estimation algorithm can be characterized by three indicators:
The computation time. Here, we mean the time needed for obtaining the estimation. Indeed, estimation algorithms should have as small as possible computation time in order provide fast, realtime, online estimation for processes with fast dynamics (for example, a challenging problem is to make an Atomic Force Microspcope work at GHz rates).
The algorithm complexity. Here, we mean the easiness of design and implementation. Estimation algorithms should have as low as possible algorithm complexity, in order to allow embedded realtime estimation (for example, in networked robotics, the embedded computation power is limited and can be even more limited for small sensors/actuators devices). Another question about complexity is: can the engineer appropriate and apply the algorithms? For instance, this is easier if the parameters have a physical meaning w.r.t. the process under study.
The robustness. Estimation algorithms should exhibit as much as possible robustness with respect to a large class of measurement noises, to parameter uncertainties and to discretization and numerical implementation. A complementary point of view on robustness is to manage the compromise between existence of theoretical proofs versus universalism of the algorithm. In the first case, the performance is guaranteed in a particular case (a particular control designed for a particular model). In the second case, a same algorithm can be directly applied in “most of the cases", but may fail in few situations.
The members of the NonA project work in different places: Lille, Reims and Nancy; they share the algebraic tool and the nonasymptotic estimation goal, which constitute the natural kernel of the project. Each of them contributes to both theoretical and applied sides of the global project. The following table draws up a scheme of some of their specialities.
Upstream Researches  Application Fields  
Reims  Signal  Numerical analysis  Denoising  Demodulation  
CReSTIC  Biomedical signal processing  
Cergy  Nonlinear observers   Cryptography  
ECS  Hybrid systems  Multicell chopper/converter 
Lille  Applied mathematics  High performance machining  
ENSAM  Precision sensors, AFM


Lille  Delay systems   
LAGIS  Nonlinear control  Observers  Magnetic bearings  Friction estimation  
(finitetime/unknown input)  Networked control  Robotics  
Nancy  Diagnosis  Control  Signal  Industrial processes  
CRAN  Signal & image processing 
The platform RobotCity has been inaugurated in April 2011 at Euratechnologies INRIA Lille;
General public communication was achieved on cooperative robotics activities for disabled people for the project SYSIASS
http://
The survey paper on delay systems is the ScienceDirect TOP 1 hottest article of Automatica since July 2009;
Technology Partnership Award 2011 of research and innovation in the Val d'Oise: Aggregation Program SDI / ECSLab;
National competition Award 2011 to assist the creation of innovative technology companies, category "EMERGENCE";
Patent pending (FR11/51604) on the control of traffic flow;
Parametric estimation may often be formalized as follows:
where:
the measured signal
Finding a "good" approximation of the components of
differential algebra
module theory, i.e., linear algebra over rings which are not necessarily commutative;
operational calculus which was the most classical tool among control and mechanical engineers
In most problems appearing in linear control as well as in signal processing, the unknown parameters are linearly identifiable: standard elimination procedures are yielding the following matrix equation
where:
the entries of
the matrix
With noisy measurements equation ( ) becomes:
where
A perturbation
By well known properties of the noncommutative ring of differential operators, we can multiply both sides of equation (
) by a suitable differential operator
where the entries of the
Unstructured noises are usually dealt with stochastic processes like white Gaussian noises. They are considered here as highly fluctuating phenomena, which may therefore be attenuated vialow pass filters. Note that no precise knowledge of the statistical properties of the noises is required.
Although the previous noise attenuation
The time derivatives of the input and output signals appearing in equations ( ), ( ), ( ) can be suppressed in the two following ways which might be combined:
integrate both sides of the equation a sufficient number of times,
take the convolution product of both sides by a suitable low pass filter.
The numerical values of the unknown parameters
Let us illustrate on a very basic example, the grounding ideas of the algebraic approach, based on algebra. For this, consider the first order, linear system:
where
where
In order to eliminate the term
Recall that
For
Since
Note that equation (
) represents an online algorithm that only involves two kinds of operations on
If we now consider an additional noise, of zero mean, in ( ), say:
it will be considered as fast fluctuating signal. The order
This example, even simple, clearly demonstrates how algebraic's techniques proceed:
they are algebraic: operations on
they are nonasymptotic: parameter
they are deterministic: no knowledge of the statistical properties of the noise
Consider the first order, linear system with constant input delay
Here we use a distributionallike notation where
where
The delay
where the
These coefficients show that
Figure
gives a numerical simulation with
Again, note the realization algorithm (
) involves two kinds of operators: (1) integrations and
(2) multiplications by
It relies on the measurement of
and a linear system with unknown parameters
The resulting numerical simulations are shown in Figure
. For identifiability reasons, the obtained linear system may be not consistent
for
Numerical differentiation, i.e., determining the time derivatives of various orders of a noisy time signal, is an important but difficult illposed theoretical problem. This fundamental issue has attracted a lot of attention in many fields of engineering and applied mathematics (see, e.g. in the recent control literature , , , , , , and the references therein).
A common way of estimating the derivatives of a signal is to resort to a least squares fitting and then take the derivatives of the resulting function. In , , this problem was revised through our algebraic approach. The approach can be briefly explained as follows:
The coefficients of a polynomial time function are linearly identifiable. Their estimation can therefore be achieved as above. Indeed, consider the realvalued
polynomial function
Here, we use
The time derivatives, i.e.,
For an arbitrary analytic time function, apply the preceding calculations to a suitable truncated Taylor expansion. Consider a realvalued analytic time function
defined by the convergent power series
Thus, using elementary differential algebraic operations, we derive explicit formulae yielding pointwise derivative estimation for each given order. Interesting enough, it turns out that
the Jacobi orthogonal polynomials
are inherently connected with the developed algebraic numerical
differentiators. A leastsquares interpretation then naturally follows
,
and this leads to a key result: the algebraic numerical
differentiation is as efficient as an appropriately chosen time delay. Though, such a delay may not be tolerable in some realtime applications. Moreover, instability generally occurs when
introducing delayed signals in a control loop. Note however that since the delay is known
a priori, it is always possible to derive a control law which compensates for its effects (see
). A second key feature of the algebraic numerical differentiators
is its very low complexity which allows for a realtime implementation. Indeed, the
If we consider that the derivatives to be estimated are unmeasured states of the process that generates the signal, differentiation techniques can be regarded as left invertibility
algorithms. In this sense, the previous algebraic estimation achieves a “modelfree” left inversion. Now, when such a model is available, the
finitetime observers, relying on higher order sliding modes
and homogeneity properties
,
, also represent possible nonasymptotic algorithms for
differentiation
Unlike the traditional methods, the estimators we defined are "nonasymptotic": solutions are provided by explicit formulae. They result in relatively simple and fast algorithms. In this sense, rather than being a project linked to a specific domain of application, we can say that the present project NonA is a methoddriven project. However, one must not forget that applicability remains a guideline in all our research. As it was told, estimation is a huge area, which explains the variety of possible application fields our new methods address. Figure illustrates the connections between our techniques and the possible applications.
During these first few years, our techniques have already generated 3 patents , , . It shows their efficiency in various industrial domains, including (see the previous reports):
Vehicle control (engine throttle , lateral and longitudinal velocities , stopandgo , tire/road contact condition ) with PSA, APEDGE, MinesParisTech, INRIA IMARA, Universidad Carlos III (Madrid), Université Paris Sud;
Hydroelectric power plants , with EDFCIH (patent pending FR0858532);
Shape memory actuators with Université de Bretagne Occidentale and ANR MAFESMA;
Magnetic actuators with Univ. des Saarlandes;
Power Electronics with Univ. du Québec à TroisRivières;
Aircraft identification with ONERA DCSD;
Secured communications (chaosbased cryptography , , , CPM demodulation ) with CINVESTAV Mexico, Math.Dept. Tlemcen Univ. Algeria and PRISME ENSIBourges.
Image and video processing (denoising , edge detection ) with INRIA QGAR, compression , compressive sensing , with CINVESTAV Mexico and Whuan Univ., China.
More recently, financial engineering with MEREOR Investment Management and Advisory SAS.
After the successful implementation of modelfree control , for several concrete situations:
Throttle control for IC engines (with APPEDGE and PSA) ;
Stopandgo automotive control strategy (in collaboration with the École des Mines de Paris and PSA) , , ;
Hydroelectrical dams modeling and control (in collaboration with EDF) , ;
Shape memory actuators (collaboration with the team directed by Prof. E. Delaleau at the École Nationale des Ingénieurs de Brest , );
Modelfree control involves the design of the socalled "intelligent" PID controllers , , and a mathematical explanation via "intelligent" PID controllers of the strange ubiquity of PIDs has been developed in , and the simulations confirm the superiority of the new intelligent feedback design;
Application of modelfree control method to set Delta hedging ;
Modelfree control of "Planar Vertical TakeOff and Landing" (PVTOL) aircraft ;
Modelfree control for power converters ;
The longitudinal control of the electrical vehicle by using modelfree control technique ;
Modelfree control for automatic water level regularization and ;
More achievements have been made in 2011, listed as follows:
Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are more and more integrated in engineering applications. These materials with their shape memory effect permit to simplify mechanisms and to reduce the size of actuators. Most of successful control strategies applied to SMA actuator are not often suitable for industrial applications. In , an application of the new framework of modelfree control to a SMA spring based actuator was proposed. This control strategy is based on new results on fast derivatives estimation of noisy signals, its main advantages are: its simplicity and its robustness. Experimental results and comparisons with PI control are exposed that demonstrate the efficiency of this new control strategy.
The regulation of freeway traffic flow, which is a complex nonlinear system, is achieved via the newly introduced modelfree control in and . Several computer simulations are validating our control strategy, which is easy to implement and shows good robustness properties with respect to perturbations;
The Ph.D. work of Y. El Afou allowed for experimental results on climate control in greenhouse.
Elementary techniques from operational calculus, differential algebra, and noncommutative algebra lead to a new algebraic approach for estimation and detection. It is investigated in various areas of applied sciences and engineering. The following lists only some applications:
A fast identification algorithm is proposed in for systems with delayed inputs. It is based on a nonasymptotic distributional estimation technique initiated in the framework of systems without delay. Such a technique leads to simple realization schemes, involving integrators, multipliers and piecewise polynomial or exponential time functions. Thus, it allows for a real time implementation.
A new approach to estimate vehicle tire forces and road maximum adherence is presented in . Contrarily to most of previous works on this subject, it is not an asymptotic observer based estimation, but a combination of elementary diagnosis tools and new algebraic techniques for filtering and estimating derivatives of noisy signals. In a first step, instantaneous friction and lateral forces will be computed within this framework. Then, extended braking stiffness concept is exploited to detect which braking efforts allow to distinguish a road type from another. A weighted Dugoff model is used during these “distinguishable" intervals to estimate the maximum friction coefficient. Very promising results have been obtained in noisy simulations and real experimentations for most of driving situations.
Numerical causal derivative estimators from noisy data are essential for real time applications especially for control applications or fluid simulation so as to address
the new paradigms in solid modeling and video compression. By using an analytical point of view,
revisited the
Recent algebraic parametric estimation techniques provide an estimate of the derivatives by using iterated integrals of a noisy observation signal. These algebraic parametric differentiation techniques give derivative estimations which contain two sources of errors: the bias term error and the noise error contribution. In order to reduce these errors, extends the parameter domains used in the estimators, and studies some error bounds which depend on these parameters. This allows us to minimize these errors. It is shown that a compromise choice of these parameters implies an “optimized" error among the noise error contribution, the bias term error and the time delay.
The numerical differentiation by integration method based on Jacobi polynomials originally introduced by Mboup, Fliess and Join is revisited in for the central case where the used integration window is centered.
A “practical" comparison between highorder sliding modes and the recently introduced modelfree control is made in . The perfect knowledge of the relative degree of the output variable, which is a standard assumption for sliding modes, is assumed. The comparisons are based on two concrete casestudies and on numerous computer simulations. The smoothness of the input variables, the robustness with respect to noises and the straightforward extendibility of the modelfree controllers to MIMO systems are highlighted.
and present a parameter estimation algorithm for a magnetic bearing. Such process are inherently unstable systems with strongly nonlinear dynamics. A simplified model of the magnetic bearing is developed, which enables to obtain a linear expression with respect to the unknown parameters. These parameters are measurable with difficulties, and may slightly vary over time. The expression of the estimates is written as a function of integrals of the inputs and outputs of the system. The simulations and the experiments show a fast and robust online identification
Estimators of the frequency, amplitude and phase of a noisy sinusoidal signal with timevarying amplitude by using the algebraic parametric techniques is studied in , in which a similar strategy to estimate these parameters by using modulating functions method is applied. The convergence of the noise error part due to a large class of noises is studied to show the robustness and the stability of these methods. We also show that the estimators obtained by modulating functions method are robust to "large" sampling period and to non zeromean noises.
In the framework of the SYSIASS project, a single landmark based localization algorithm for nonholonomic mobile robots is studied in . In the case of a unicycle robot model, the localization problem is equivalent to the system observability. Based on this observation, the proposed localization method consists in finding a vector function which depends on the measurement vector and its derivatives, for which a numerical differentiation method is used in .
Observability analysis and observer design are important issues in the field of control theory. Some recent results are listed below:
Observability of a class of switched systems with Zeno phenomenon or high switching frequency is treated in . Particularly, three observability forms are proposed and the observability for each form with knowledge of filtered switching signal is analyzed. Meanwhile, sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of a diffeomorphism to transform a class of switched systems into one of such forms are presented.
A triangular canonical form for a class of 0flat nonlinear systems is studied in . Necessary and sufficient geometrical conditions are given in order to guarantee the existence of a local diffeomorphism to transform the studied nonlinear systems into the proposed 0flat canonical form, which enables us to compute the flat output as well.
A fault tolerant control for induction motors based on backstepping strategy is designed in . The proposed approach permits to compensate both the rotor resistance variations and the load torque disturbance. Moreover, to avoid the use of speed and flux sensors, a second order sliding mode observer is used to estimate the flux and the speed. The designed observer converges in a finite time and gives a good estimate of flux and speed even in the presence of rotor resistance variations and load torque disturbance.
is concerned with the study of observability properties of systems without inputs via homogeneous approximations. This approximation is induced by a filtration on the space of observation. A corresponding filtration on a Lie algebra of vector fields is defined and allows to construct the approximation that preserve observability properties. An explicit construction is given in .
Causal and noncausal observabilities are discussed in for nonlinear timedelay systems with unknown inputs. Using the theory of noncommutative rings and the algebraic framework, the nonlinear timedelay system is transformed into a suitable canonical form to solve the problem. A necessary and sufficient condition is given to guarantee the existence of a change of coordinates leading to such a form.
The notion of homogeneity is extended to the timedelay nonlinear systems in . It is shown that under some conditions the stability of homogeneous functional systems on a sphere implies the global stability of the system. The notion of local homogeneity is introduced, the relations between stability of the locally approximating dynamics and the original timedelay system are established.
Stability and synchronization of systems with timevarying delays is studied in
, in which a novel control scheme with position/velocity
information channel on the basis of LyapunovKrasovskii functional (LKF) and H
Embedded systems can benefit from all results on variable sampling for delayed systems , and .
Project SYSIASS
http://
Subject: Autonomous and Intelligent Healthcare System;
Partners: ISEN de Lille, Ecole Centrale de Lille, University of Kent, University of Essex, East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust, Groupement Hospitalier de l'Institut Catholique de Lille;
Duration: 2010  2013;
Support: FEDER;
Project CHASLIM
http://
Subject: Sliding mode control;
Partners: INRIA GrenobleRhône Alpes, INRIA LilleNord Europe, Ecole Centrale de Nantes;
Duration: 20112014;
Support: ANR;
Project HYCON2
http://
Subject: Networked control systems;
Partners: See
http://
Duration: 20102015;
Support: FP7;
Project SENSAS
http://
Subject: Sensor network Applications;
Partners: INRIA GrenobleRhône Alpes, INRIA LilleNord Europe, INRIA Sophia AntipolisMéditerranée, INRIA NancyGrand Est;
Duration: 20102014;
Support: ANR;
New contract with EDF on the prediction of inflow into the Rhine;
Contract with DIRIF (Direction Interdépartementale des Routes d'ÎledeFrance) to control the highway access problem.
Imminent creation of a cooperation with SAS in December 2011.
Grant from GRAISyHM (Groupement de Recherche en Automatisation Intégrée et Systèmes HommeMachine, governmental Federation and Regional Council) on networked control (results connected with delay systems), with LAGIS and LAMIH (CNRSUVHC Valenciennes).
We are involved in several technical groups of the GDR MACS (CNRS, "Modélisation, Analyse de Conduite des Systèmes dynamiques", see
http://
Modelfree control: collaborations with Professor Brigitte D'AndréaNovel at Mines ParisTech and Professor Emmanuel Delaleau at ENIB (Brest).
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM): application of new algebraic methods in tapping mode for AFM, collaboration with the National Laboratory of Metrology (LNE) located at Trappes.
Collaboration with Sarah Spurgeon of University of Kent on Sliding mode control;
Collaboration with Emmanuel Brousseau of Cardiff University for the project: "on nano mechanical machining of 3D nano structures by AFM".
Collaboration with Professors Emilia Fridman (Tel Aviv University) and Joao Manoel Gomes da Silva (UFRGS, Porto Allegre, Brasil) on timedelay systems.
Collaboration with Professor Hong Sun (Whuan University, China) for cosupervising the PhD thesis of Lei Yu on Compressive sensing.
Collaborations with Professor Guiseppe Fedele from University of Calabria, Italy, on "Modelfree control".
Programme Hubert Curien GALILEE for scientific exchange between LAGIS and University of Cagliari, Italy;
Programme Hubert Curien VOLUBILIS (Maroc, Integrated Action MA/09/211) between LAGIS (Université Lille1), NonA/INRIA and Laboratory of Electronic, Information and Biotechnology of Department of Science at University Moulay Ismail of Meknès;
Programme Hubert Curien COGITO for scientific exchange between University of Reims Champagne Ardenne, NonA and University of Zagreb.
JeanPierre Richard is currently Associate Editor of Int. J. of Systems Science.
Mamadou Mboup is currently Managing Editor of African Diaspora Journal of Mathematicsand Associate Editor of EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing.
Thierry Floquet is currently Associate Editor of Nonlinear Analysis : Hybrid Systemsand esta.
IFAC Technical Committees: The members of NonA are participating to several technical committees of the IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control, see the TC
list on
http://
JeanPierre Richard was in the International Program Committee of several IEEE and IFAC conferences: IEEE Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, 2011; IEEE SmArt COmmunications & Network technologies applied on Autonomous Systems, 2011; IEEE International Symposium on Programming and Systems, 2011; IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2011; Journées Doctorales Modélisation Analyse et Conduite des Systèmes dynamiques, 2011; Journées Identification Modélisation Expérimentale, 2011;
Cédric Joint was in committee of Conférence Méditerranéenne sur l'Ingénierie sûre des Systèmes complexes, 2011;
Lotfi Belkoura was in committee of Journées Identification Modélisation Expérimentale, 2011;
Gang Zheng was in committee of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing, 2011;
Mamadou Mboup was in the Program committee of IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing 2011;
JeanPierre Barobt was in evaluation committee of PES(61 section of CNU).
JeanPierre Richard is president of the GRAISyHM, federation from the French government. He is an expert for the evaluation of projects submitted to ANR, CNRS, DGRI and AERES, and heading the 3rd year professional training "Research" of the École Centrale de Lille;
Wilfrid Perruquetti is the scientific head of ANR program Blanc SIMI3, and is heading the 3rd year professional training "ISD: Information System and Decision" of the École Centrale de Lille; He is an expert for ANR, AERES and ARC (Australian Research Council);
Mamadou Mboup is heading the group SYSCOM  CReSTIC, University of Reims ChampagneArdenne;
Lotfi Belkoura is heading the Master "AG2i: Automatique, Génie Informatique et Image", University of Lille 1 and École Centrale de Lille. This Master, after a national evaluation (A), is presently "SMaRT: Systèmes, Machines autonomes et Réseaux de Terrain";
Thierry Floquet is an expert for the evaluation of projects submitted to ANR and Israel Science Foundation, and a member of Conseil National des Universités, 61ème Section. He is as well the head of the groupe SyNeR of LAGIS laboratory;
Cédric Join is heading the AIIASRI, IUT NancyBrabois;
The team members are also involved in numerous examination committees of theses and Habilitations, in France and abroad.
Thierry Floquet: 2week stay in University of Cagliari, Italy, with Dr. Alessandro Pisano.
Emilia Fridman, Professor of Tel Aviv University, Israel, June 2011, supported by École Centrale de Lille;
Marc Bodson, Professor of University of Utah, USA, June 2011, supported by École Centrale de Lille;
Benachir Bouchikhi, Professor of University Moulay Ismail of Meknès, supported by “Partenariat Hubert Curien Volubilis";
Hisaya Fujioka, Associate Professor of Kyoto University, September 2011, supported by Kyoto University.
IFAC World Congress, 2011, Italy (JeanPierre Richard, JeanPierre Barbot, Wilfrid Perruquetti, Mamadou Mboup, Gang Zheng, Denis Efimov, Samer Riachy);
International Workshop in honour of Prof. Giorgio Bartolini Retirement, 2011, Italy (Wilfrid Perruquetti, JeanPierre Barobt);
IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2011, USA (Wilfrid Perruquetti, JeanPierre Barbot);
IEEE Chinese Conference on Control and Decision, 2011, China (Gang Zheng);
Journées Nationales de la Recherche en Robotique, 2011, France (Wilfrid Perruquetti);
Summer School on Robotics and Automation, 2011, Alger (Wilfrid Perruquetti);
Conférence Méditerranéenne sur l'Ingénierie sûre des Systèmes complexes, 2011, Maroc (Cédric Join);
Summer school on Automatic control, 2011, Romania (Lotfi BelKoura);
Journée d'Identification et de Modélisation Expérimentale, 2011, France (Lotfi Belkoura);
IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, 2011, China (Mamadou Mboup);
Colloque on Signal and Image Processing, 2011, France (Mamadou Mboup).
The members of NonA are reviewers for most of the journal of the control and signal communities: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on Systems and Control Technologies, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Automatica, SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, Journal of Computation and Applied Mathematics, Systems & Control Letters, International Journal of Control, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, International Journal of Systems Science, Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, IET Control Theory & Applications, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, International Journal of Modeling and Simulation, Journal of the Franklin Institute, ...
Dayan Liu, "Analyse d'Erreurs d'Estimateurs des Dérivées de Signaux Bruités et Applications", October 17, 2011;
Zoran Tiganj, "On the pertinence of a numerical transmission model for neural information", November 8, 2011.
The members of the team teach at different level in universities and engineering schools and, in particular, at Master Thesis level:
Name  Course title  Level  Institution 
Barbot  Process Control  Master  Univ. Tlemcen, Algeria 
Gibaru  Applied Mathematics  Master  USTLUVHCULCO 
Mboup  Advanced Signal Processing  Master  Univ.Paris 5, ENITTunis 
Perruquetti  Nonlinear control  Master  EC Lille 
Perruquetti  Robotics  Master AG2i  EC Lille  USTL 
Richard  Mathematical tools for nonlinear systems  Master AG2i  EC Lille  USTL 
Richard  Dynamical systems  Research training  EC Lille 
Belkoura  An introduction to distributions  Master AG2i  EC Lille  USTL 
JeanPierre Richard is in charge of the professional training "Research" of Ecole Centrale de Lille since 2003 (training for lastyear students of EC Lille who are
preparing a research career). (
http://
Wilfrid Perruquetti is in charge of the professional training "ISD: Information System and Decision" of Ecole Centrale de Lille since 2010 (
http://
Lotfi Belkoura is in charge of the SMART Master Thesis training in control of University of Lille 1 and Ecole Centrale de Lille.
JeanPierre Barbot is in charge of the Master Thesis training in control of the University of Tlemcen, Algeria.