This interdisciplinary project brings together researchers coming from different horizons and backgrounds (applied mathematics and fluid mechanics) who progressively elaborated a common vision of what should be the simulation tool of fluid dynamics of tomorrow. Our team focuses on
wall bounded turbulent flows featuring complex phenomena such as aeroacoustics, hydrodynamic instabilities, wall roughness, buoyancy. Because such flows are exhibiting a multiplicity of time and scale fluctuations resulting from complex interactions, their simulation is extremely challenging. Even if various methods of simulation (DNS *multi-scale simulations*. For example, the RANS mode may extend throughout regions where turbulence is sufficiently close to equilibrium leaving to LES or DNS the handling of regions where large scale coherent structures are present. However, a considerable body of work is required to:

Establish the behavior of the different types of turbulence modeling approaches when combined with high order discretization methods.

Elaborate relevant and robust switching criteria between models, similar to error assessments used in automatic mesh refinement, but based on the physics of the flow in order to adapt on the fly the scale of resolution from one extreme of the spectrum to another (say from the Kolmogorov scale to the geometrical large scale, i.e., from DNS to RANS).

Ensure a high level of accuracy and robustness of the resulting simulation tool to address a large range of flow configurations, i.e., from a generic lab scale geometry for validation to practical systems of interest of our industrial partners.

But the best multi-scale modeling and high order discretization methods are useless without the recourse to high performance computing (HPC) to bring the simulation time down to values compatible with the requirement of the end users. So, a significant part of our activity is devoted to the proper handling of the constantly evolving supercomputer architectures. The long-term objective of this project is to develop, validate, promote and transfer an original and effective approach for modeling and simulating generic flows representative of flow configurations encountered in the field of energy production and aeronautical propulsion. Our approach will be combining mesh (h) + turbulence model (m) + discretization order (p) adaptivity. This will be achieved by:

Contributing to the development of new turbulence models.

Improving high order numerical methods, and increasing their efficiency in the current High Performance Computing context.

Developing experimental tools.

In that framework, in 2015, the team members developed their activity around the following axes:

The development of the AeroSol library and the direct numerical simulations of single jets in crossflow including that experimentally studied on the team test facility MAVERIC.

The development of low Mach schemes.

The development of advanced turbulence RANS and hybrid RANS-LES turbulence models adapted to zero Mach flows with a specific emphasis on the wall-flow interaction.

A typical continuous solution of the Navier Stokes equations at sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number is governed by a spectrum of time and space scales fluctuations closely connected with the turbulent nature of the flow. The term deterministic chaos employed by Frisch in its enlightening book is certainly conveying most adequately the difficulty in analyzing and simulating this kind of flows. The broadness of the turbulence spectrum is directly controlled by the Reynolds number defined as the ratio between the inertial forces and the viscous forces. This number is not only useful to determine the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow regime, it also indicates the range of scales of fluctuations that are present in the flow under consideration.

Typically, for the
velocity field and far from solid walls, the ratio between the largest scale
(the integral length scale) to the smallest one
(Kolmogorov scale) scales as

Thus, the usual practice to deal with turbulent flows is to choose between an a priori modeling (in most situations) or not (low Re number and rather simple configurations) before proceeding to the discretization step followed by the simulation runs themselves. If a modeling phase is on the agenda, then one has to choose again among the above mentioned variety of approaches.

To the noticeable exception of the hybrid RANS-LES modeling, which is not yet accepted as a reliable tool for industrial design, as mentioned in the preamble of the Go4hybrid European program

All the methods considered in the project are mesh-based methods: the computational domain is divided into cells, that have an elementary shape: triangles and quadrangles in two dimensions, and tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramids, and prisms in three dimensions. If the cells are only regular hexahedra, the mesh is said to be structured. Otherwise, it is said to be unstructured. If the mesh is composed of more than one sort of elementary shape, the mesh is said to be hybrid.

The AeroSol library developed in the team is based on discontinuous Galerkin methods. These methods were introduced by Reed and Hill and first studied by Lesaint and Raviart . The extension to the Euler system with explicit time integration was mainly led by Shu, Cockburn and their collaborators. The steps of time integration and slope limiting were similar to high order ENO schemes, whereas specific constraints given by the finite element nature of the scheme were progressively solved, for scalar conservation laws , , one dimensional systems , multidimensional scalar conservation laws , and multidimensional systems . For the same system, we can also cite the work of , , which is slightly different: the stabilization is made by adding a nonlinear term, and the time integration is implicit.

Contrary to continuous Galerkin methods, the discretization of
diffusive operators is not straightforward. This is due to the discontinuous
approximation space, which does not fit well with the space function in which
the diffusive system is well posed. A first stabilization was proposed by
Arnold . The first application of discontinuous Galerkin
methods to Navier-Stokes equations was proposed in by
mean of a mixed formulation. Actually, this first attempt led to
a non compact computation stencil, and was later proved to be not stable.
A compactness improvement was made in ,
which was later analyzed, and proved to be stable in a more
unified framework . The combination with the

They can be developed for any order of approximation.

The computational stencil of one given cell is limited to the cells with which it has a common face. This stencil does not depend on the order of approximation. This is a pro, compared for example with high order finite volumes, which require as more and more neighbors as the order increases.

They can be developed for any kind of mesh, structured, unstructured, but also for aggregated grids . This is a pro compared not only with finite differences schemes, which can be developed only on structured meshes, but also compared with continuous finite elements methods, for which the definition of the approximation basis is not clear on aggregated elements.

Upwinding is as natural as for finite volumes methods, which is a benefit for hyperbolic problems.

As the formulation is weak, boundary conditions are naturally weakly formulated. This is a benefit compared with strong formulations, for example point centered formulation when a point is at the intersection of two kinds of boundary conditions.

For concluding this section, there already exist numerical schemes based on the discontinuous Galerkin method which proved to be efficient for computing compressible viscous flows. Nevertheless, there remain many things to be improved, which include: efficient shock capturing methods for supersonic flows, high order discretization of curved boundaries, low Mach number behavior of these schemes and combination with second-moment RANS models. Another drawback of the discontinuous Galerkin methods is that they can be computationally costly, due to the accurate representation of the solution calling for a particular care of implementation for being efficient. We believe that this cost can be balanced by the strong memory locality of the method, which is an asset for porting on emerging many-core architectures.

With the considerable and constant development of computer performance, many people were thinking at the turn of the 21st century that in the short term, CFD would replace experiments considered as too costly and not flexible enough. Simply flipping through scientific journals such as Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Combustion of Flame, Physics of Fluids or Journal of Computational Physics or through websites such that of Ercoftac

The combustion chamber of aeronautical engines is the system of practical interest we are interested in as far as propulsion devices are concerned. The MAVERIC test facility was developed by P. Bruel in that framework during the theses (CIFRE Turbomeca) of A. Most (2007) and J.-L. Florenciano (2013). The initial objective was to reproduce experimentally a simplified flow configuration (jet(s) in crossflow) representative of that encountered at the level of the effusion cooled aeronautical combustion chambers walls. The experimental data were used by Safran/Turbomeca to assess the predictive capability of LES simulations during our joint participation in the EU-FP7 KIAI program (2009-2013). Concerning DNS, the jet in crossflow configurations of our AeroSol based simulations which represent our contribution to the EU IMPACT-AE program (2011-2016) were chosen in partnership with Turbomeca who is leading the corresponding work package. Last but not least, tests aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of characterizing in situ by PIV the velocity field of flows emerging from different kinds of fuel nozzles were carried out at the Turbomeca premises in 2012 and 2013. Although our main present industrial partners are large companies, we are and will be actively targeting much smaller companies (SMEs) especially in the southwest part of France. In that respect, the partnership we just started with AD Industries which is manufacturing fuel nozzles as well as combustion chambers for business jet engines is emblematic of our involvement in such kind of partnership.

The cooling of key components of power stations in case of emergency stops is a critical issue. R. Manceau has established a long term collaboration (4 PhD thesis) with the R & D center of EDF of Chatou, for the development of refined turbulence models in the in-house CFD code of EDF, Code_Saturne, in order to improve the physical description of the complex interaction phenomena involved in such applications. In the framework of the co-supervision of the PhD thesis (CIFRE EDF) of J.-F. Wald, strategies are developed to adapt the EB-RSM turbulence model to a local modification of the scale of description of the flow in the near-wall region: refined scale (fine mesh in the near-wall region) or coarse scale (with wall functions). Indeed, the complexity of the industrial geometries is such that a fine mesh along solid boundaries in the whole system is usually not possible/desirable.

**First DNS simulation of a turbulent flow with AeroSol**

In 2015, the first DNS of the configuration of a jet in turbulent crossflow have been carried out with the AeroSol library. Qualitativeley speaking, this represents the completion of the initial objective that the team was targeting in 2011 when it was created ! These computations were done within the IMPACT-AE project. The runs were using 1024 cores of the BlueGene /Q cluster Turing at IDRIS thanks to a 4400000-hour computing grant obtained in 2015. Examples of results obtained for the two flow configurations considered are presented in Fig. .

**Implementation of the EB-RSM model into StarCCM+**

In close collaboration with the R&D team of Adapco, the company that develops and sells the commercial CFD package StarCCM+, the EB-RSM model has been implemented in this code, starting from release 10.02. This constitutes a significant achievement that our models are made widely available to the engineering community.

Developed since 2011 by V. Perrier in partnership with the Cardamom Inria team, the AeroSol library is a high order finite element library written in C++. The code design has been carried for being able to perform efficient computations, with continuous and discontinuous finite element methods on hybrid and possibly curvilinear meshes.

The work of the Cardamom team is focused on continuous finite element methods, while we focus on discontinuous Galerkin methods. However, everything is done for sharing the largest possible part of code. The distribution of the unknowns is made with the software PaMPA, first developed within the Inria teams Bacchus and Castor, and currently maintained in the Tadaam team.

The generic features of the library are

**High order**. It can be theoretically any order of accuracy, but
the finite element basis, and quadrature formula are implemented for having
up to a fifth order of accuracy.

**Hybrid and curvilinear meshes**. AeroSol can deal with
up to fifth order conformal meshes composed of lines, triangles, quadrangles,
tetrahedra, hexahedra, prism, and pyramids.

**Continuous and discontinuous discretization**. AeroSol deals
with both continuous and discontinuous finite element methods.

We would like to emphasize three assets of this library:

**Its development environment** For allowing a good collaborative work and a functional library, a strong emphasis has been put on the use of modern
collaborative tools for developing our software. This includes the active use
of a repository, the use of CMake for the compilation, the constant
development of unitary and functional tests for all the parts of the library
(using CTest),
and the use of the continuous integration tool Jenkins for testing the
different configurations of AeroSol and its dependencies. Efficiency is
regularly tested with direct interfacing with the PAPI library or with
tools like scalasca.

**Its genericity** A lot of classes are common to all the
discretization, for example classes concerning I/O, finite element functions,
quadrature, geometry, time integration, linear solver, models and interface
with PaMPA. Adding simple features (e.g. models, numerical flux, finite element
basis or quadrature formula) can be easily done by writing the class, and
declaring its use in only one class of the code.

**Its efficiency** This modularity is achieved by means
of template abstraction for keeping good performances. Dedicated efficient
implementation, based on the data locality of the discontinuous Galerkin
method has been developed. As far as parallelism is concerned, we use
point-to-point communications, the HDF5 library for parallel I/O. The behavior of
the AeroSol library at medium scale (1000 to 2000 cores) was studied in
.

The AeroSol project fits with the first axis of the Bordeaux Sud Ouest development strategy, which is to build a coherent software suite scalable and efficient on new architectures, as the AeroSol library relies on several tools developed in other Inria teams, especially for the management of the parallel aspects.

At the end of 2014, AeroSol had the following features:

**Development environment** Use of CMake for compilation (gcc, icc and xlc),
CTest for automatic tests and memory checking,
lcov and gcov for code coverage reports. Development of a CDash server for collecting the unitary tests and the memory checking.
Beginning of the development of an interface for functional tests.
Optional linking with HDF5, PAPI, with dense small matrices libraries (BLAS, Eigen)

**In/Out**
Link with the XML library for handling with parameter files. Parallel reader
for GMSH, with an embedded geometrical pre-partitioner.
Writer on the VTK-ASCII legacy format (cell and point centered). Parallel output in vtu and pvtu (Paraview) for cell-centered visualization, and XDMF/HDF5
format for both cell and point centered visualization. Ability of saving the high order solution and
restarting from it. Computation of volumic and probe statistics. Ability of
saving averaged layer data in quad and hexa meshes. Ability of
defining user defined output visualization variables.

**Quadrature formula** up to 11th order
for Lines, Quadrangles, Hexaedra, Pyramids, Prisms,
up to 14th order for tetrahedron, up to 21st order for triangles. Gauss-Lobatto type quadrature formula for lines, triangles, quadrangles and hexaedra.

**Finite elements** up to fourth degree for Lagrange finite elements and hierarchical orthogonal finite element basis (with Dubiner transform on simplices)
on lines, triangles, quadrangles, tetrahedra, prisms, hexaedra and pyramids. Finite element basis that are interpolation basis on Gauss-Legendre points for lines, quadrangles, and
hexaedra, and triangle (only 1st and 2nd order).

**Geometry** Elementary geometrical functions for first order
lines, triangles, quadrangles, prisms, tetrahedra, hexaedra and pyramids. Handling of high order meshes.

**Time iteration** explicit Runge-Kutta up to fourth order, explicit
Strong Stability Preserving schemes up to third order. Optimized CFL time schemes: SSP(2,3) and SSP(3,4). CFL time stepping. Implicit integration with BDF
schemes from 2nd to 6th order Newton method for stationary problems. Implicit
unstationary time iterator non consistent in time for stationary problems.
Implementation of in house GMRES and conjugate gradient based on Jacobian
free iterations.

**Linear Solvers** Link with the external linear solver UMFPack, PETSc and MUMPS. Internal solver for diagonal and block-diagonal matrices.

**Memory handling** discontinuous and continuous, sequential and parallel discretizations
based on PaMPA for generic meshes, including hybrid meshes.

**Models** Perfect gas Euler system, real gas Euler system (template based abstraction for a generic equation of state), scalar
advection, Waves equation in first order formulation, generic interface
for defining space-time models from space models.
Diffusive models: isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, compressible
Navier-Stokes. Scalar advection-diffusion model.

**Numerical schemes** Continuous Galerkin method for the Laplace
problem (up to fifth order) with non consistent time iteration or with direct
matrix inversion.
Explicit and implicit discontinuous Galerkin methods for hyperbolic systems, diffusive and advection-diffusion problems. Beginning of optimization by
stocking the geometry for advection problems.
SUPG and Residual disribution schemes. Optimization of DG schemes for
advection-diffusion problems: stocking of the geometry and use of BLAS for
all the linear phases of the scheme.

**Numerical fluxes** Centered fluxes, exact Godunov' flux for
linear hyperbolic systems, and Lax-Friedrich flux. Riemann solvers for Low
Mach flows. Numerical flux accurate for
steady and unsteady computations.

**Boundary conditions** Periodic boundary conditions, time-dependent
inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Adiabatic wall and isothermal wall.
Steger-Warming based boundary condition.

**Parallel computing** Mesh redistribution, computation of Overlap
with PaMPA. Collective asynchronous communications
(PaMPA based). Asynchronous point to point communications.
Tests on the cluster Avakas from MCIA, and on
Mésocentre de Marseille, and PlaFRIM. Tier-1 Turing (BlueGene).

**C++/Fortran interface** Tests for binding fortran with C++.

**Instrumentation** Aerosol can give some traces on memory consumption/problems with an interfacing with the PAPI library. Tests have also been performed with VTUNE and TAU.
Tests with Maqao and Scalasca (VIHPS workshop).

**Validation ** Poiseuille, Taylor-Green vortex. Laplace equation on
a ring and Poiseuille flow on a ring. Implementation of volumic forcing
based on wall dissipation.

In 2015, N. Pattakos was hired in the team Cardamom, in order to improve the code architecture and for easing the installation of the library. The following features were added or improved:

**Development environment** The use of CMake was strongly improved, which induced also easier test launching. Documentation, code cleaning and refactorization have also been led. The shared project of Plafrim was updated, and so was the joint Aerosol/Scotch/PaMPA project on the continuous integration platform. Integration of SPack for handling dependencies has begun. Interface with ESSL was fixed.

**Multigrid** Development of

**Boundary conditions** Development of the Synthetic Eddy Method boundary condition.

**Models** Linearized Euler equations, and Sutherland model for non isothermal diffusive flows. Shallow-water model.

**Parallel computing** Weighted load balancing for hybrid meshes.

**Validation ** Turbulent channel flow.

**Postprocessing** Development of high order projections
over line postprocessing, possibility of stocking averaged data, such as the average flow and the Reynolds stresses.

One main achievement of this year is to have done our first DNS computations at third order with the Aerosol software. Two configurations of jet in cross flow have been computed: one with a hole direction aligned with the main flow direction (Fig. -left), and another one with a 90-degree jet skidding (Fig. -right). The first case has been validated by using analytical models of jet trajectory, and has also been compared with experiments made with our experimental bench MAVERIC. The comparison of experiments and DNS showed a good agreement.

The DNS database includes:

The instantaneous flow at the vertices of the mesh.

the instantaneous flow at some probes.

The mean flow.

The value of the Reynolds stress tensor in all the degrees of freedom.

In a previous study , the momentum interpolation (MI) method was considered as a guideline to develop a Godunov-like flux scheme called AUSM-IT and able to preserve the acoustic energy at the discrete level for a low-order finite volume approach. This year, the MI method has been successfully extended to the case of low Mach flows featuring discontinuities . The undesirable dispersive effect directly connected to the upwinding of the MI formulation of the face velocity has been corrected (up to second-order errors) by using a central interpolation of momentum in the face velocity definition.

Despite the numerous studies dealing with underexpanded jets, many aspects of their structure were not clearly described, particularly when one seeks for quantitative predictions. Since such flow configuration may be of interest in case of the accidental boring of an aeronautical combustion chamber, an exhaustive review of the main experimental papers dealing with underexpanded jets has been carried out . This study aimed at clarifying the characteristics which were well known, from those where there is clearly a lack of confidence. Curiously enough, such a work has never been done and no exhaustive review was available on such a topic.

The Elliptic Blending Reynolds Stress Model (EB-RSM), originally proposed by Manceau & Hanjalic in 2002, has been subject to various modifications by several authors during the last decade, mainly for numerical robustness reasons. We have revisited all these modifications from the theoretical standpoint and investigated in detail their influence on the reproduction of the physical mechanisms at the origin of the influence of the wall on turbulence. Theoretical arguments and comparison with DNS results led to the selection of a recommended formulation for the EB-RSM model .

A complex issue in multi-scale simulations is the necessity to *enrich* the solution at the interface
between a region described at coarse grain (e.g., using RANS) and a region described at fine grain (e.g., using LES).
In order to rapidly generate realistic fluctuations at the beginning of the LES region, we have proposed a method
of volumic forcing, the so-called ALF (Anisotropic Linear Forcing).
In an overlap region, a time-dependent volume force is introducted into the filtered equations of motion in order
to amplify the turbulent fluctuations in order that the LES field satisfy the statistics of the RANS solution,
a method that proved simple, efficient and computationnaly cheap.

Most of the available hybrid RANS/LES methods are completely empirical or based on a formalism
which is not applicable in practical application, due to a mismatch between the statistical average and the spatial filetring in inhomogeneous flows.
The lack of clear formalism leads to limitations in terms of modeling of the unresolved turbulent motion.
We have established a criterion to assess the equivalence between hybrid RANS/LES methods, called *H-equivalence*,
that makes it possible to view different hybrid methods as models for the same
system of equations: as a consequence, empirical hybrid methods, such as the detached-eddy simulation (DES),
can be interpreted as a model for the subfilter stress involved in the *temporally filtered* Navier-Stokes equations, which is an answer to the
issue raised above about the formalism underlying such methods.

Collaborative research contract with EDF: “Nouveau modèle de turbulence Haut-Bas Reynolds avec prise en compte de la thermique active ou passive. (New high-low Reynolds number turbulence model accounting for active or passive heat transfer)” associated with the PhD thesis of J.-F. Wald.

PhD grant (CIFRE) of J.-F. Wald, EDF, in progress.

This is a 3-year programme, funded by Conseil Régional d'Aquitaine (call 2014) and two small-size companies, AD Industrie (Gurmençon, France) and GDTECH ( Bordes, France). A one-year post-doc [YM] started in May 2015. The objective is to investigate the possibility of using advanced RANS or hybrid RANS-LES approaches to better predict the pressure losses in aeronautical fuel nozzles.

We are members of the CNRS GIS Success (Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique) organised around the two major codes employed by the Safran group, namely AVBP and Yales 2. Apart our participation in the annual meeting of the GIS technical comittee, no specific technical activity has been devoted around those codes during 2015.

Program: Propulsion

Project acronym: IMPACT-AE

Project title: Intelligent Design Methodologies for Low Pollutant Combustors for Aero-Engines

Duration: 01/11/2011 - 31/05/2016

Coordinator: Roll Royce Deutschland

Other partners:

France: Insa of Rouen, ONERA, Snecma, Turbomeca.

Germany: Rolls-Royce Deutschland, MTU Aeo Engine Gmbh, DLR, Technology Institute of Karlsruhe, University of Bundeswehr (Munich)

Italy: AVIOPROP SRL, AVIO S.P.A., University of Florence

United Kingdom: Rolls Royce PLC, Cambridge University, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medecine, Loughborough University.

Abstract: The environmental benefits of low emission lean burn technology in reducing NOx emissions up to 80% will only be effective when these are deployed to a large range of new aero-engine applications. While integrating methodologies for advanced engine architectures and thermodynamic cycles. It will support European engine manufacturers to pick up and keep pace with the US competitors, being already able to exploit their new low emission combustion technology to various engine applications with short turn-around times. Key element of the project will be the development and validation of design methods for low emission combustors to reduce NOx and CO emissions by an optimization of the combustor aero-design process. Preliminary combustor design tools will be coupled with advanced parametrisation and automation tools. Improved heat transfer and NOx models will increase the accuracy of the numerical prediction. The contribution of our team is to create with AeroSol a direct numerical simulations (DNS) database relevant to the configuration of film cooling for subsequent improvement of RANS based simulations of isothermal and non isothermal wall flows with discrete mass transfer.

April-June 2015: A. Javadi (PhD student) from Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden (3 months).

Collaboration [PB, VP, YM] with E. Dick (University of Ghent, Belgium) on the development of schemes for the simulation of unsteady low Mach number flows.

Collaboration [PB] with A. Allouhi, A. Jamil, Y. Mourad (Ecole Supérieure de Technologie of Fès, Marocco) related to solar driven cooling systems.

Collaboration [PB] with A. Beketaeva and A. Naïmanova (Institute of Mathematics, Almaty, Kazakhstan) related to the simulation of supersonic flows.

Collaboration [RM] with H. Nilsson and A. Javadi (University of Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden) on the development of RANS and hybrid RANS/LES for the turbomachinery computations.

Collaboration [RM] with E. Juntasaro (King Mongkut's TU, Bangkok, Thailand) about the modeling of bypass transition.

Collaboration [RM] with Tran Thanh Tinh and Anh Thi NGuyen (TU Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam) on temporal hybrid RANS/LES.

April-June 2015: A. Javadi (PhD student) from Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden (3 months).

November 2015: Prof. Erik Dick from Ghent University (Belgium) (4 days).

November 2015: Dr. A. Naïmanova from the Institute of Mathematics (Ministry of Education), Almaty, Kazakhstan (4 weeks).

November-December 2015: N. Shakhan (PhD student) from Al Farabi University, Almaty, Kazakhstan (7 weeks).

Member [RM] of the steering committee of the Special Interest Group “Turbulence Modelling” (SIG-15) of ERCOFTAC (European Research COmmittee for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) that organizes a series of international workshops dedicated to cross-comparisons of the results of turbulence models and experimental/DNS databases.

Member [RM] of the scientific committee of the Intl Symp. Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2015

This year, the team members have reviewed (12) contributions to the following conferences:

ECOS 2015 (Pau, France) (1) [PB] ASME GT Turbo Expo 2015 (Montréal, Canada) (2) [PB] ASME-GT Turbo Expo 2016 (Séoul, South Korea) (2) [PB] THMT-2015 (Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina) (5) [RM] NURETH (The Haag, The Netherlands) (2) [RM]

This year, the team members have reviewed (29) papers for the following journals:

Aerospace Science and Technology (6) [PB]

Combustion and Flame (5) [PB]

Computers & Fluids (1) [VP]

International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research (2) [PB]

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer (1)[YM]

International Journal of Sustainable Aviation (1) [PB]

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (1) [YM]

Journal of Computational Physics (2) [VP]

Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering (2) [PB]

Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers (1) [PB]

International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow (3) [RM]

Flow Turbulence and Combustion (2) [RM]

Journal of Fluid Mechanics (1) [RM]

Heat Transfer Engineering (1) [RM]

“A brief overview of Inria Cagire team activity”, CTA/ITA/IAE, Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, 26 November 2015. [PB]

V. Perrier is an expert for research for the "Région Île de France".

V. Perrier is a member of the evaluation committee, which is in charge of assessing the calibre of research conducted at Inria and guaranteeing the quality of its hiring and internal promotions.

V. Perrier participated to the hiring committees for Young Graduate Scientists (CR2) in Inria Bordeaux and Inria Saclay. He participated also to the hiring committee for an assistant professor in Pau.

V. Perrier is member of the health, safety and working conditions comittee, in charge of watching the prevention in the Bordeaux Sud Ouest center.

V. Perrier is appointed member of the Scientific Applications committee of Pau University in charge of developing the scientific computing and high performance computing policy within Pau University.

V. Perrier is an elected member of the Mathematics and Application experts committee in Pau university, in charge of hiring the non permanent teachers, of forming the hiring comittees for assistant professors, and of ranking the proposition of invited professors. He was elected vice-chair of this comittee in 2015.

V. Perrier is the scientific responsible for the website of the Mathematics department in Pau.

Master : [RM], Turbulence Modelling, 28h, École centrale de Lille/ENSI Poitiers/ISAE-ENSMA, Poitiers, France.

Engineering School: [RM] Industrial codes for CFD, 12h, ISAE-ENSMA, Poitiers, France.

Master : [PB] “Fluid mechanics: Mach zero flows vs low Mach number flows”, 30h, M2, Al Faraby University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Master : [PB], "An introduction to the numerical simulation of reacting flows", 15h, M2, ISAE-SupAéro, Toulouse, France.

Licence : [JJ], "Sequences and functions of one variable", 48h45, L1 - Geo-sciences, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.

Licence : [JJ], "Mathematics for the geo-sciences 2", 19h30, L2 - Chemistry, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.

Licence : [JJ], "Sequences and series", 19h30, L2 - MIASHS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.

PhD : Simon Delmas, Simulation numérique directe d'un jet en écoulement transverse à bas nombre de Mach en vue de l’amélioration du refroidissement par effusion des chambres de combustion aéronautiques, 16 December 2015, Sup.:[PB] and Co-sup.: [VP].

PhD in progress: Jean-François Wald, Modélisation de la turbulence avec traitement adaptatif des parois prenant en compte la thermique active ou passive, started October 2013, Sup.: [RM]

PhD in progress : Nurtoleu Shakhan, Modelling and simulation of supersonic jet in crossflow, University of Almaty (Kazakhstan), started October 2013, Sup.:A. Naïmanova and Co-Sup.:[PB] (the thesis subject has been modified mid-2014).

Young Engineer: Benjamin Lux, Implementation of h-p multigrid in Aerosol, Sup.: [VP]

The participation in the following thesis juries is noted ("referee" in a French doctoral thesis jury is more or less equivalent to an external opponent in an Anglo-Saxon like PhD jury):

PhD : G. Sempionato "Numerical study of premixed stratified flame using the b-theta flame wrinkling model with extinction limit", National Institute of Aerospace Research (INPE), Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, 25 november 2015, Sup.: W.M.C. Dourado. [PB]

PhD : D. Lahbib « Modélisation aérodynamique et thermique des multiperforations en LES », University of Montpellier-2, France, 17 December 2015. Supervisor and co-supervisor: F. Nicoud and A. Dauptain.[PB, referee]

PhD : A. Ghani « Simulation aux grandes échelles des instabilités de combustion transverses pour des flammes parfaitement prémélangées et swirlées diphasiques ». University of Toulouse, France, 17 September 2015. Supervisor: L. Gicquel. [PB]

PhD : C. Koupper “Unsteady multi-component simulations dedicated to the impact of the combustion chamber on the turbine of aeronautical gas turbines”, Université de Toulouse, France, 11 May 2015 (Rapporteur). Supervisor and co-supervisor: L. Gicquel and P. Duchaine. [PB, referee]

PhD : N. Petrova “Turbulence-chemistry interaction models for numerical simulation of aeronautical propulsion systems”, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 16 January 2015. Supervisor: V.A. Sabel’nikov. [PB, referee]

« Simulation d’écoulements turbulents : retour d’expérience de partenariats de recherche », Meeting "Nature & Technology" organized by the "Conseil départemental des Pyrénées Atlantiques", devoted to « La recherche scientifique au service de l’aéronautique », Parlement de Navarre, Pau, France, 12 November 2015. [PB]

« Carrefour des Métiers» organized by the "Zone d’Activité Pédagogique d’Orthez", gymnase Blazy, Mourenx(64), France, 4 April 2015 (a stand was manned by [PB] during one day with the objective of explaining the activity of researcher to an audience of schoolboys/girls and high school students).