For engineers, a wide variety of information cannot be directly obtained through measurements. Some parameters (constants of an electrical actuator, delay in a transmission, etc.) or internal variables (robot's posture, torques applied to a robot, localization of a mobile robot, etc.) are unknown or unmeasured. In addition, usually the signals from sensors are distorted and tainted by measurement noises. In order to simulate, to control or to supervise processes, and to extract information conveyed by the signals, one has to estimate parameters or variables.
Estimation techniques are, under various guises, present in many parts of control, signal processing and applied mathematics. Such an important area gave rise to a huge international literature. From a general point of view, the performance of an estimation algorithm can be characterized by three indicators:
The computation time (the time needed to obtain the estimation). Obviously, the estimation algorithms should have as small as possible computation time in order to provide fast, realtime, online estimations for processes with fast dynamics (for example, a challenging problem is to make an Atomic Force Microscope work at GHz rates).
The algorithm complexity (the easiness of design and implementation). Estimation algorithms should have as low as possible algorithm complexity, in order to allow an embedded realtime estimation (for example, in networked robotics, the embedded computation power is limited and can be even more limited for small sensors/actuators devices). Another question about complexity is: can an engineer appropriate and apply the algorithms? For instance, an algorithm application is easier if the parameters have a physical meaning w.r.t. the process under study.
The robustness. The estimation algorithms should exhibit as much as possible robustness with respect to a large class of measurement noises, parameter uncertainties, discretization steps and other issues of numerical implementation. A complementary point of view on robustness is to manage a compromise between existence of theoretical proofs versus universalism of the algorithm. In the first case, the performance is guaranteed in a particular case (a particular control designed for a particular model). In the second case, an algorithm can be directly applied in “most of the cases", but it may fail in few situations.
Within the very wide area of estimation, NonA addresses 3 particular theoretical challenges (see the upper block “Theory” of Figure ):
1) Design annihilators for some general class of perturbations;
2) Estimate online the derivatives of a signal;
3) Control without sophisticated models.
All of them are connected with the central idea of designing or exploiting algorithms with the finitetime convergence property. In particular, the nonasymptotic estimation techniques (numerical differentiation, finitetime differentiators or observers) constitute a central objective of the project, explaining the name NonAsymptotic estimation for online systems. Below, these 3 challenges will be shortly described in relation to the above indicators.
The researches developed by NonA are within the continuity of the projectteam ALIEN in what concerns the algebraic tools that are developed for finitetime estimation purposes. However, NonA also aims at developing complementary estimation techniques, still aiming at the finitetime performance but based on the socalled higherorder sliding mode algorithms, interval estimation techniques and, as well as, fixedtime algorithms.
NonA also wants to confront these theoretical challenges with some application fields (shown on the bottom of Figure ): Networked robots, Nano/macro machining, Multicell chopper, iPID for industry. Today, most of our effort (i.e., engineering staff) is devoted to the first item, according to the theme `Internet of Things' promoted by Inria in its Strategic Plan for the Lille NorthEurope research center. Indeed, WSNR (Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks) integrate mobile nodes (robots) that extends various aspects of the sensor network.
The members of the NonA project work in different places: Lille, Cergy, Reims and Nancy. They share a common algebraic tool and the nonasymptotic estimation goal, which constitute the natural kernel of the project. Each of them contributes to both theoretical and applied sides of the global project. The following table draws up a scheme of some of their specialities.
Upstream Researches  Application Fields  
Reims CReSTIC  Signal  Numerical analysis  Denoising  Demodulation  Biomedical signal processing 
Cergy Quartz  Nonlinear observers  Hybrid systems  Cryptography  Multicell chopper/converter 
Lille ENSAM  Applied mathematics  High performance machining  Precision sensors, AFM

Lille CRIStAL  Delay systems  Nonlinear control  Observers (finitetime/unknown input)  Magnetic bearings  Friction estimation  Networked control  Robotics 
Nancy CRAN  Diagnosis  Control  Signal  Industrial processes  Signal & image processing 
Estimation is quite easy in the absence of perturbations. It becomes challenging in more realistic situations, faced to measurement noises or other unknown inputs. In our works, as well as in the founding text of NonA, we have shown how our estimation techniques can successfully get rid of perturbations of the socalled structured type, which means the ones that can be annihilated by some linear differential operator (called the annihilator). ALIEN already defined such operators by integral operators, but using more general convolution operators is an alternative to be analyzed, as well as defining the “best way to kill” perturbations. Open questions are:
OQ1) Does a normal form exist for such annihilators?
OQ2) Or, at least, does there exist an adequate basis representation of the annihilator in some adequate algebra?
OQ3) And lastly, can the annihilator parameters be derived from efficient tuning rules?
The two first questions will directly impact Indicators 1 (time) and 2 (complexity), whereas the last one will impact indicator 3 (robustness).
Estimating the derivative of a (noisy) signal with a sufficient accuracy can be seen as a key problem in domains of control and diagnosis, as well as signal and image processing. At the present stage of our research, the estimation of the
Two classes of techniques are considered here (Modelbased and Modelfree), both of them aiming at nonasymptotic estimation.
In what we call modelbased techniques, the derivative estimation is regarded as an observation problem, which means the softwarebased reconstruction of unmeasured variables and, more generally, a left inversion problem
Modelfree techniques concern the works initiated by ALIEN, which rely on the only information contained in the output signal and its derivatives. The corresponding algorithms rely on our algebraic annihilation viewpoint. One open question is: How to provide an objective comparison analysis between Modelbased and Modelfree estimation techniques? For this, we will only concentrate on NonAsymptotic ones. This comparison will have to be based on the three Indicators 1 (time), 2 (complexity) and 3 (robustness).
Industry is keen on simple and powerful controllers: the tuning simplicity of the classical PID controller explains its omnipresence in industrial control systems, although its performances drop when working conditions change. The last challenge we consider is to define control techniques which, instead of using sophisticated models (the development of which may be expensive), use the information contained in the output signal and its estimated derivatives, which can be regarded as “signalbased” controllers. Such design should take into account the Indicators 1 (time), 2 (complexity) and 3 (robustness).
Keeping in mind that we will remain focused at developing and applying fundamental methods for nonasymptotic estimation, we intend to deal with 4 main domains of application (see the lower part of Figure ). The Lille context offers interesting opportunities in WSAN (wireless sensor and actuator networks and, more particularly, networked robots) at Inria, as well as nano/macro machining at ENSAM. A power electronics platform will be developed in ENSEA Cergy. Last, in contact with companies, several grants, patents and collaborations are expected from the applications of
Networked robots, WSAN [Lille]
Nano/macro machining [Lille]
Multicell chopper [Lille and Cergy]
iPID for industry
In the present period, we choose to give a particular focus to the first item (Networked robots), which already received some development. It can be considered as the objective 4.
Inria Lille and team FUN are hosting an “equipment of excellence”, named FITIoT lab. It gives a remote access to thousands of wireless sensors to be connected with hundreds of mobile robots. Today, many sensor scenarios are available, with few robot testbeds.
The package SLIM, developed by NonA under ROS (Robot Operating System) with the support of an Inria ADT, aims at contributing to this environment. The self deployment of autonomous groups of mobile robots in an unknown and variable environment is a next step for IoTlab, involving localization, path planning and robust control problems. Our ROS package SLIM aims at combining various algorithms developed by NonA (localization, path planning, robust control). It should also offer a software library for multirobot including: optimal local planner based on flatness; plugin for communication between different ROS cores; module MultiMapping for robot cooperation; plugin for YEI IMU.
Modelling, estimation or detection for living is difficult because such systems cannot be isolated from external influences. Using our numerical differentiation tools, together with modelling techniques, we want to study the following four applications:
Biosensing: Unlike classical approaches deploying physical sensors, biological systems can be used as living sensors. The marine biology lab EPOC (CNRS, Bordeaux) has developed underwater sensors for bivalve molluscs (such as oysters) measuring and sending through RGPS the opening gap between the two valves. We want to use it for water quality monitoring by either identifying oyster's rythm I/O models or by using our differentiation tools. Spawning detection is also considered (ANR WaQMoS).
HumanComputer Interaction: Reduction of the latency between the human input and the system visual response in HCI (ANR TurboTouch). To do that, a simple forecasting algorithm for latency compensation in indirect interaction using a mouse has to be developed based on differentiators.
Smart bracelet: Design a dynamical model for the GSR and for the development of an online algorithm making the GSR signal independent of the user movements. Most resulting computations should be embedded into the bracelet. Collaboration with NEOTROPE (startup developing a bracelet intended for strong human emotion detection).
Microbial populations: Realtime control of synthetic microbial communities (Inria Project Lab, COSY, under evaluation).
NonA is active in a Regional consortium gathering microtechnologies (ONERA, IEMN, LAMIH, LML and PPrime lab, Univ. of Poitiers) which aims at developing methods for active control of separated flows (ContrATech subprogram of CPER ELSAT).
Aerodynamic losses are believed to be a major source of energy wastage for a vehicle at speeds higher than 50 km/h. Optimization of the vehicles shapes has reached its limit and such a passive control approach cannot deal with unsteady incoming flow. Similarly, in aeronautics, controlling boundary layer airflow could reduce stall drastically. In such contexts, active control strategies (air blowers, hot film sensors, etc.) are very attractive. But the natural phenomena ruling turbulent flows lead to highly nonlinear and infinitedimension dynamics. Till now, researchers use either nonlinear PDEs (NavierStokes equations) allowing for analysis but improper for control design or unrealistic linear finitedimension models for classical
Industry is keen on simple and powerful controllers. The tuning simplicity of the classical PID controller explains its omnipresence in industrial control systems, although its performances drop when the working conditions change. AL.I.E.N SAS was created in 2011 as a spinoff of the Inria project ALIEN, which gave rise to NonA, working on algebraic estimation and iPID controller (i.e., using algebraic estimation of the perturbations and apply a simple PID control on some “ultralocal” model). These control technique uses the information contained in the output signal and its estimated derivatives, which can be regarded as “signalbased” controllers. Modelfree control technique has been applied in many different domains (electronics, hydroelectric power, etc.).
Recent research is focused on traffic control and biology. The quality of traffic control laws depends on a good knowledge of the highway characteristics, especially the critical density and the freeflow speed, which are unfortunately most difficult to estimate in real time. Therefore, we aim at developing an algorithm which shows the possibility to control the traffic without the knowledge of density and freeflow speed.
A collaboration with the Safran Electronics & Defense company has been developed (CIFRE PhD thesis) on the parametric stabilization of gyrostabilized platforms. To do that, we first aim at developing new symbolicnumeric methods for the standard
UCoCoS
The H2020 project UCoCoS (Understanding and Controlling of Complex Systems, supervisors: W. Michiels, J.P. Richard, H. Nijmeijer, 20162020) has started effectively this year: kickoff meeting in Eindhoven in March and, at the end of this year, recruitment of the 6 PhD students (including 4 jointly with Lille: H. Silm, J. Thomas, D. Dileep, Q. Voortman) in the 3 hosting institutions.
D. Efimov is Outstanding IEEE TAC reviewer.
Functional Description
Scientific research and development on the control of autonomous airship have shown a significant growth in recent years. New applications appear in the areas such as freight carrier, advertising, monitoring, surveillance, transportation, military and scientific research. The control of autonomous airship is a very important problem for the aerial robots research.
The development of Blimp by NonA is used for experimentation and demonstration of controlling algorithms. The blimp is required to provide some environment information and status of itself, such as surveillance video of surrounding environment, gesture of blimp, altitude of blimp. With these basic information, one could localize blimp with certain algorithm (visual SLAM for example) or implement one controller in order to improve the stability and maneuverability of blimp.
Contact: JeanPierre Richard
The driving idea is to interconnect a group of actors (researchers, engineers, etc.) around a control problem and grant them remote access to existing experimental facilities, thus allowing them to verify their theoretical results online, and finally share them with the project members.
The platform architecture relies on three key principles:
Problem centric: The control problem to be solved is the core project, whereas the software resources, tools and online experiments are web services available to support experimental verification of the solutions.
Separation of concerns: setup and maintenance of experiment facilities, installation of software tools, problem formulation and theoretical analysis, etc.
Resource sharing: software packages, experimental facilities, open problems.
Contact: R. Dagher, A. Polyakov, J.P. Richard
Functional Description
Multirobots cooperation can be found as an application in many domains of science and technology: manufacturing, medical robotics, personal assistance, military/security and spatial robots. The market of robots is quickly developing and its capacity is continuously growing. Concerning cooperation of mobile multirobots, 3 key issues have to be studied: Localization, path planning and robust control, for which NonA team has worked and proposed new algorithms. Due to the ADT SLIM, we implement our algorithms (localization, path planning and robust control) and integrate them into ROS (Robotic Operating System) as a package, named SLIM.
Contact: G. Zheng
Homogeneity is one of the tools we develop for finitetime convergence analysis. In 2016 this concept has received various improvements:
Frequency domain approach to analysis of homogeneous nonlinear systems , :
Analysis of feedback sensitivity functions for implicit Lyapunov functionbased control system is developed. The Gang of Four and loop transfer function are considered for practical implementation of the control via frequency domain control design. The effectiveness of this control scheme is demonstrated on an illustrative example of roll control for a vectored thrust aircraft.
Homogeneous distributed parameter systems , :
A geometric homogeneity is introduced for evolution equations in a Banach space. Scalability property of solutions of homogeneous evolution equations is proven. Some qualitative characteristics of stability of trivial solution are also provided. In particular, finitetime stability of homogeneous evolution equations is studied. Classical theorems on existence and uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear evolution equations are revised. A universal homogeneous feedback control for a finitetime stabilization of linear evolution equation in a Hilbert space is designed using homogeneity concept. The design scheme is demonstrated for distributed finitetime control of heat and wave equations.
Robustness of Homogenous Systems:
, The problem of stability robustness with respect to timevarying perturbations of a given frequency spectrum is studied applying homogeneity framework. The notion of finitetime stability over time intervals of finite length, i.e. shortfinitetime stability, is introduced and used for that purpose. The results are applied to demonstrate some robustness properties of the threetank system.
The uniform stability notion for a class of nonlinear timevarying systems is studied in using the homogeneity framework. It is assumed that the system is weighted homogeneous considering the time variable as a constant parameter, then several conditions of uniform stability for such a class of systems are formulated. The results are applied to the problem of adaptive estimation for a linear system.
Robustness with respect to delays is discussed in , for homogeneous systems with negative degree. It is shown that if homogeneous system with negative degree is globally asymptotically stable at the origin in the delayfree case then the system is globally asymptotically stable with respect to a compact set containing the origin independently of delay. The possibility of applying the result for local analysis of stability for not necessary homogeneous systems is analyzed. The theoretical results are supported by numerical examples.
Finitetime and Fixedtime Control and Estimation:
, A switched supervisory algorithm is proposed, which ensures fixedtime convergence by commutation of finitetime or exponentially stable homogeneous systems of a special class, and a finitetime convergence to the origin by orchestrating among asymptotically stable systems. A particular attention is paid to the case of exponentially stable systems. Finitetime and fixedtime observation problem of linear multiple input multiple output (MIMO) control systems is studied. The nonlinear dynamic observers , which guarantee convergence of the observer states to the original system state in a finite and a fixed (defined a priori) time, are studied. Algorithms for the observers parameters tuning are also developed.
Discretization of Homogeneous Systems:
MultiHomogeneity and differential inclusions:
The notion of homogeneity in the bilimit from is extended in to local homogeneity and then to homogeneity in the multilimit. The converse Lyapunov/Chetaev theorems on (homogeneous) system instability are obtained. The problem of oscillation detection for nonlinear systems is addressed. The sufficient conditions of oscillation existence for systems homogeneous in the multilimit are formulated. The proposed approach estimates the number of oscillating modes and the regions of their location. Efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on several examples.
Time parameter estimation for a sum of sinusoidal waveform signals :
A novel algebraic method is proposed to estimate amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of a biased and noisy sum of complex exponential sinusoidal signals. The resulting parameter estimates are given by original closed formulas, constructed as integrals acting as timevarying filters of the noisy measured signal. The proposed algebraic method provides faster and more robust results, compared with usual procedures. Some computer simulations illustrate the efficiency of our method.
Algebraic estimation via orthogonal polynomials :
Many important problems in signal processing and control engineering concern the reconstitution of a noisy biased signal. For this issue, we consider the signal written as an orthogonal polynomial series expansion and we provide an algebraic estimation of its coefficients. We specialize in Hermite polynomials. On the other hand, the dynamical system described by the noisy biased signal may be given by an ordinary differential equation associated with classical orthogonal polynomials. The signal may be recovered through the coefficients identification. As an example, we illustrate our algebraic method on the parameter estimation in the case of Hermite polynomials.
An effective study of the algebraic parameter estimation problem :
Within the algebraic analysis approach, we first give a general formulation of the algebraic parameter estimation for signals which are defined by ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients such as the standard orthogonal polynomials (Chebyshev, Jacobi, Legendre, Laguerre, Hermite, ... polynomials). We then show that the algebraic parameter estimation problem for a truncated expansion of a function into an orthogonal basis of
Interval Observers:
The problem of interval observer design is studied in for a class of linear hybrid systems. Several observers are designed oriented on different conditions of positivity and stability for estimation error dynamics. Efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated by computer experiments for academic and bouncing ball systems.
The problem of estimation of sequestered parasites Plasmodium falciparum in malaria, based on measurements of circulating parasites, is addressed in . It is assumed that all (death, transition, recruitment and infection) rates in the model of a patient are uncertain (just intervals of admissible values are given) and the measurements are subject to a bounded noise, then an interval observer is designed. Stability of the observer can be verified by a solution of LMI. The efficiency of the observer is demonstrated in simulation.
Observer design:
Estimation and Identification:
The problem of output control for linear uncertain system with external perturbations is studied in . It is assumed that the output available for measurements is the higher order derivative of the state only (acceleration for a second order plant), which is also corrupted by noise. Then via series of integration an identification algorithm is proposed for identification of values of all parameters and unknown initial conditions for the state vector. Finally, two control algorithms are developed, adaptive and robust, providing boundedness of trajectories for the system. Efficiency of the obtained solutions is demonstrated by numerical experiments.
Inputtostate stability:
Supported by a novel field definition and recent control theory results, a new method to avoid local minima is proposed in . It is formally shown that the system has an attracting equilibrium at the target point, repelling equilibriums in the obstacles centers and saddle points on the borders. Those unstable equilibriums are avoided capitalizing on the established InputtoState Stability (ISS) property of this multistable system. The proposed modification of the PF method is shown to be effective by simulation for a two variables integrator and then applied to an unicyclelike wheeled mobile robots which is subject to additive input disturbances.
Stabilization:
A solution to the problem of global fixedtime output stabilization of a chain of integrators is proposed in . A nonlinear state feedback and a dynamic observer are designed in order to guarantee both fixedtime estimation and fixedtime control. Robustness with respect to exogenous disturbances and measurement noises is established. The performance of the obtained control and estimation algorithms are illustrated by numeric experiments.
The Universal Integral Control, introduced in H.K. Khalil, is revisited in by employing mollifiers instead of a highgain observer for the differentiation of the output signal. The closed loop system is a classical functional differential equation with distributed delays on which standard Lyapunov arguments are applied to study the stability. Lowpass filtering capability of mollifiers is demonstrated for a high amplitude and rapidly oscillating noise. The controller is supported by numerical simulations.
Synchronization:
In , , motivated by a recent work of R. Brockett Brockett (2013), we study a robust synchronization problem for multistable Brockett oscillators within an InputtoState Stability (ISS) framework. Based on a recent generalization of the classical ISS theory to multistable systems and its application to the synchronization of multistable systems, a synchronization protocol is designed with respect to compact invariant sets of the unperturbed Brockett oscillator. The invariant sets are assumed to admit a decomposition without cycles (i.e. with neither homoclinic nor heteroclinic orbits). Contrarily to the local analysis of Brockett (2013), the conditions obtained in our work are global and applicable for family of nonidentical oscillators. Numerical simulation examples illustrate our theoretical results.
Timedelay systems:
The problem of delay estimation for a class of nonlinear timedelay systems is considered in . The theory of noncommutative rings is used to analyze the identifiability. Sliding mode technique is utilized in order to estimate the delay showing the possibility to have a local (or global) delay estimation for periodic (or aperiodic) delay signals.
The backward observability (BO) of a part of the vector of trajectories of the system state is tackled in for a general class of linear timedelay descriptor systems with unknown inputs. By following a recursive algorithm, we present easy testable sufficient conditions ensuring the BO of descriptor timedelay systems.
Motivated by the problem of phaselocking in droopcontrolled inverterbased microgrids with delays, in , the recently developed theory of inputtostate stability (ISS) for multistable systems is extended to the case of multistable systems with delayed dynamics. Sufficient conditions for ISS of delayed systems are presented using LyapunovRazumikhin functions. It is shown that ISS multistable systems are robust with respect to delays in a feedback. The derived theory is applied to two examples. First, the ISS property is established for the model of a nonlinear pendulum and delaydependent robustness conditions are derived. Second, it is shown that, under certain assumptions, the problem of phaselocking analysis in droopcontrolled inverterbased microgrids with delays can be reduced to the stability investigation of the nonlinear pendulum. For this case, corresponding delaydependent conditions for asymptotic phaselocking are given.
Causal and noncausal observability are discussed in for nonlinear time delay systems. By extending the Lie derivative for timedelay systems in the algebraic framework introduced by Xia et al. (2002), we present a canonical form and give sufficient condition in order to deal with causal and noncausal observations of state and unknown inputs of timedelay systems.
SampledData systems:
Algebraic analysis approach:
As far as we know, there is no algebraic (polynomial) approach for the study of linear differential timedelay systems in the case of a (sufficiently regular) timevarying delay. Based on the concept of skew polynomial rings developed by Ore in the 30s, the purpose of is to construct the ring of differential timedelay operators as an Ore extension and to analyze its properties. Classical algebraic properties of this ring, such as noetherianity, its homological and Krull dimensions and the existence of Gröbner bases, are characterized in terms of the timevarying delay function. In conclusion, the algebraic analysis approach to linear systems theory allows us to study linear differential timevarying delay systems (e.g. existence of autonomous elements, controllability, parametrizability, flatness, behavioral approach) through methods coming from module theory, homological algebra and constructive algebra.
Recent progress in computer algebra has opened new opportunities for the parameter estimation problem in nonlinear control theory, by means of integrodifferential inputoutput equations. In , we recall the origin of integrodifferential equations. We present new opportunities in nonlinear control theory. Finally, we review related recent theoretical approaches on integrodifferential algebras, illustrating what an integrodifferential elimination method might be and what benefits the parameter estimation problem would gain from it.
Computational real algebraic geometric approach:
A fault detection method for an automatic detection of spawning in oysters :
Using measurements of valve activity (i.e. the distance between the two valves) in populations of bivalves under natural environmental condition (16 oysters in the Bay of Arcachon, France, in 2007, 2013 and 2014), an algorithm for an automatic detection of the spawning period of oysters is proposed in this paper. Spawning observations are important in aquaculture and biological studies, and until now, such a detection is done through visual analysis by an expert. The algorithm is based on the fault detection approach and it works through the estimation of velocity of valve movement activity, that can be obtained by calculating the time derivative of the valve distance. A summarized description of the methods used for the derivative estimation is provided, followed by the associated signal processing and decision making algorithm to determine spawning from the velocity signal. A protection from false spawning detection is also considered by analyzing the simultaneity in spawning. Through this study, it is shown that spawning in a population of oysters living in their natural habitat (i.e. in the sea) can be automatically detected without any human expertise saving time and resources. The fault detection method presented in the paper can also be used to detect complex oscillatory behavior which is of interest to control engineering community.
Robust synchronization of genetic oscillators :
Cell division introduces discontinuities in the dynamics of genetic oscillators (circadian clocks, synthetic oscillators, etc.) causing phase drift. This paper considers the problem of phase synchronization for a population of genetic oscillators that undergoes cell division and with a common entraining input in the population. Inspired by stochastic simulation, this paper proposes analytical conditions that guarantee phase synchronization. This analytical conditions are derived based on Phase Response Curve (PRC) model of an oscillator (the first order reduced model obtained for the linearized system and inputs with sufficiently small amplitude). Cell division introduces state resetting in the model (or phase resetting in the case of phase model), placing it in the class of hybrid systems. It is shown through numerical experiments for a motivating example that without common entraining input in all oscillators, the cell division acts as a disturbance causing phase drift, while the presence of entrainment guarantees boundedness of synchronization phase errors in the population. Theoretical developments proposed in the paper are demonstrated through numerical simulations for two different genetic oscillator models (Goodwin oscillator and Van der Pol oscillator).
Modeling pointing tasks in mousebased humancomputer interactions :
Pointing is a basic gesture performed by any user during humancomputer interaction. It consists in covering a distance to select a target via the cursor in a graphical user interface (e.g. a computer mouse movement to select a menu element). In this work, a dynamic model is proposed to describe the cursor motion during the pointing task. The model design is based on experimental data for pointing with a mouse. The obtained model has switched dynamics, which corresponds well to the state of the art accepted in the humancomputer interaction community. The conditions of the model stability are established. The presented model can be further used for the improvement of user performance during pointing tasks.
Modeling and control of turbulent flows :
The modelbased closedloop control of a separated flow can be studied based on the model described by NavierStokes equation. However, such a model still rises difficult issues for control practice. An alternative bilinear and delayed model has been developed tested on the experiments allowing its identification. The identification technique combines leastsquare technique with a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm.
Practical design considerations for successful industrial application of modelbased fault detection techniques to aircraft systems :
This paper discusses some key factors which may arise for successful application of modelbased Fault Detection(FD) techniques to aircraft systems. The paper reports on the results and the lessons learned during flight V & V(Validation & Verification) activities, implementation in the A380 Flight Control Computer(FCC) and A380 flight tests at Airbus(Toulouse, France).The paper does not focus on new theoretical materials, but rather on a number of practical design considerations to provide viable technological solutions and mechanization schemes. The selected case studies are taken from past and ongoing research actions between Airbus and the University of Bordeaux (France). One of the presented solutions has received final certification on new generation Airbus A350 aircraft and is flying (first commercial flight: January 15,2015)
Finitetime obstacle avoidance for unicyclelike robot :
The problem of avoiding obstacles while navigating within an environment for a Unicyclelike Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR) is of prime importance in robotics; the aim of this work is to solve such a problem proposing a perturbed version of the standard kinematic model able to compensate for the neglected dynamics of the robot. The disturbances are considered additive on the inputs and the solution is based on the supervisory control framework, finitetime stability and a robust multioutput regulation. The effectiveness of the solution is proved, supported by experiments and finally compared with the Dynamic Window Approach (DWA) to show how the proposed method can perform better than standard methods.
Almost global attractivity of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus :
The problem of deriving verifiable conditions for stability of the equilibria of a realistic model of a synchronous generator with constant field current connected to an infinite bus is studied in the paper. Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of equilibrium points are provided. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for almost global attractivity are given. To carry out this analysis a new Lyapunov–like function is proposed to establish convergence of bounded trajectories, while the latter is proven using the powerful theoretical framework of cell structures pioneered by Leonov and Noldus.
Contract with Neotrope (Tourcoing, France), Technologies & Augmented Human UX. Subject: Decorrelation of GSR measurements with acceleration, from March 2016 to September 2016, D. Efimov, R. Ushirobira.
Project of Autonomous control of clinic table with La Maison Attentive, 2016.
Collaboration with Safran Electronics & Defense (MassyPalaiseau) in the framework of the CIFRE PhD thesis of Guillaume Rance on robust stabilization of gyrostabilized platforms (20142018).
Project ARCIR ESTIREZ “Estimation distribuée de systèmes dynamiques en réseaux”, coordinators: D. Efimov, M. Petreczky, 2013−2017.
CPER DATA 20162020 (involved in two projects: “FIT” related to the wireless robots and sensors network and “DATA”, related to platform). FIT includes our robotic activity and DATA corresponds to our computation need in fluid mechanics as well as possible security issues in the ControlHub development platform.
ELSAT20202 (Ecomobilité, Logistique, Sécurité, Adaptabilité dans les Transports) is a Regional consortium gathering aeronautics (ONERA), micro/nano technologies (IEMN), control sciences (NonA) and fluid mechanics (LAMIH, LML) and working on technologies and methods for the active control of separated flows.
ANR project Finite4SoS (Finite time control and estimation for Systems of Systems), coordinator: W. Perruquetti, 20152020.
ANR project WaQMoS (Coastal waters quality surveillance using bivalve molluskbased sensors), coordinator: D. Efimov, 20152019.
ANR project TurboTouch (Highperformance touch interactions), coordinator: G. Casiez (MJOLNIR team, Inria), 20142018.
ANR project ROCCSYS (Robust Control of CyberPhysical Systems), coordinator: L. Hetel (CNRS, EC de Lille), 20132018.
ANR project MSDOS (Multidimentional System: Digression on Stability), coordinator: Nima Yeganefar (Poitiers University), 20142018.
We are also involved in several technical groups of the GDR MACS (CNRS, "Modélisation, Analyse de Conduite des Systèmes dynamiques", see http://
Modelfree control: collaborations with the startup ALIEN SAS (created by C. Join and M. Fliess).
Partner 1: KULeuven, labo 1 (Belgium)
Supervisor: W. Michiels
Partner 2: TU/Eindhoven, labo 1 (The Netherlands)
Supervisor: H. Nijmeijer
Partner 3: Centrale Lille, labo 1 (France)
Supervisor: J.P. Richard
H2020 project UCoCoS (“Understanding and Controlling of Complex Systems”, 20162020) is a European Joint Doctorate aiming at creating a framework for complex systems, and at defining a common language, common methods, tools and software for the complexity scientist. It strongly relies on a control theory point of view. Six ESR (early stage researchers) perform a cuttingedge project, strongly relying on the complementary expertise of the 3 academic beneficiaries and benefiting from training by 4 nonacademic partners from different sectors. ESR1: Analytical and numerical bifurcation analysis of delaycoupled systems; ESR2: Estimation in complex systems; ESR3: Grip on partial synchronization in delaycoupled networks; ESR4: Reduced modelling of largescale networks ; ESR5: Network design for decentralized control ; ESR6: Networks with event triggered computing. NonA is firstly invested on ESR 2 (Haik Silm), 4 (Quentin Voortman), 5 (Deesh Dileep), 6 (Jijju Thomas).
HoTSMoCE “Homogeneity Tools for Sliding Mode Control and Estimation”, project with UNAM (Mexico), supervisor: D. Efimov, 20152018.
Arie Levant, Tel Aviv University, Israel (Invited Professor, 4 months, 20152016).
Emilia Fridman, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Leonid Fridman, UNAM, Mexico
Jaime Moreno, UNAM, Mexico
Johannes Schiffer, Leeds University, UK
ITMO University, SaintPetersburg, Russia
Eva Zerz, Aachen University, Germany
“Robust and Reliable Control of Aerial Syste”', Beihang University, China, 2016, in charge: G. Zheng
PHC Amadeus “Computer Algebra and Functional Equations”, 20162017, with the University of Limoges (XLIM) and the University of Linz (Austria).
Leonid Fridman, UNAM, Mexico, 10/07/201622/07/2016, “Stability analysis of a slidingmode control algorithm of second order with time delays”.
Emilia Fridman, Tel Aviv University, Israel, 27/06/201611/07/2016, “Design of interval observers for distributedparameters systems”.
Jaime Alberto Moreno Pérez, UNAM, Mexico, 27/06/201608/07/2016, “Recursive design of Lyapunov functions for finitetime stable systems”.
Tonametl Sanchez Ramirez, UNAM, Mexico, 24/10/201618/11/2016, “Homogeneity for discretetime systems”.
Juan Gustavo Rueda Escobedo, UNAM, Mexico, 24/10/201618/11/2016, “Finitetime and fixedtime identification of parameters”.
Konstantin Zimenko, ITMO, Russia, 26/09/201628/10/2016, “Delay independent stabilization via implicit Lyapunov function approach”.
Damiano Rotondo, NTNU, Norway, 17/10/201621/10/2016, “Fault detection for LPV systems using interval observers”.
Paul Lesur, “Robust control of blimp”, 0507/2016 , supervisor: G. Zheng
Baihui Du, “Robust control of fast dynamical systems”, 0507/2016, supervisor: G. Zheng
G. Zheng visited Beihang University (China) for two weeks in July 2016.
COSY (under evaluation) Realtime Control of Synthetic microbial communities. While some precursory work has appeared in recent years, the control of microbial communities remains largely unexplored. This proposal aims at exploiting the potential of stateofart biological modelling, control techniques, synthetic biology and experimental equipment to achieve a paradigm shift in control of microbial communities. Lead by E. Cinquemani as a collaboration of 4 Inria teams IBIS, BIOCORE, COMMANDS, NonA), the Inria Exploratory Action INBIO and external partners BIOP (CNRS), MaIAge (INRA), and YoukLAB (TU Delft).
G. Zheng held a visiting professor position in Nanjing University of Science and Technology (China) for two months stay in August 2016.
W. Perruquetti is the chairman of the IFAC Technical Committee “Social Impact of Automation”, International Federation of Automatic Control, TC 9.2, and a member of the IFAC Technical Committees “Nonlinear Control Systems”, TC 2.3, and “Discrete Event and Hybrid Systems”, TC 1.3.
A. Quadrat is a member of the IFAC Technical Committee “Linear Control Systems”, International Federation of Automatic Control, TC2.2
J.P. Richard is a member of the IFAC Technical Committee “Linear Control Systems”, International Federation of Automatic Control, TC2.2
G. Zheng is a member of the IFAC Technical Committee “Social Impact of Automation”, International Federation of Automatic Control, TC9.2
G. Zheng is cochair of the working group “Commande et pilotage en environnement incertain” of GRAISYHM
C. Jamroz, A. Quadrat, J.P. Richard and G. Zheng were members of the organizing committee of “JAMACS'16 : Journées Automatique du GDR MACS 2016”, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1516/11/2016.
W. Perruquetti is a member of the steering committee of IFAC CPHS’16 (79 December 2016, Florianopolis, Brazil), an IPC member of IEEE VSS’16 (14 June 2016, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China) and of IFAC HMS'16 (August 30September 2 2016, Kyoto, Japan) and an Associate Editor of the 20th IFAC World Congress (1014 July 2017, Toulouse, France).
W. Perruquetti and J.P. Richard are members of the Advisory panel (NOC) of 20th IFAC World Congress, Toulouse, France, 1014 July 2017.
The members of NONA team are reviewers and contributors of all topranked conferences in the field of automatic control (IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IFAC World Congress, European Control Conference, American Control Conference, etc.).
A. Polyakov: International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control
A. Polyakov: Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications (JOTA)
A. Polyakov: Automation and Remote Control
A. Quadrat: Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing (MSSP)
The members of NONA team are reviewers of all topranked journals in the field of automatic control (IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Automatica, SIAM Journal of Control and Optimization, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, etc.).
D. Efimov gave a plenary talk at the conference “JAMACS'16 : Journées Automatique du GDR MACS 2016”, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, 1516/11/2016.
The NONA team is the leader in the field of nonasymptotic control and estimation using homogeneity framework.
Moreover, the NONA team is also leader in algebraic systems theory. In particular, two invited sessions “Algebraic methods and symbolicnumeric computation in systems theory” were organized at the 22nd International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems (MTNS 2016), University of Minnesota, USA, 1215/07/2016. Moreover, a miniworkshop “New trends on multidimensional systems and their applications in control theory and signal processing” was organized at Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques (CIRM), Luminy, France, 0307/10/2016.
A. Quadrat was a member of the “jury d'admission des concours Inria CR2 & CR1”. He was also a member of the “Commission des Emplois de Recherche”, Inria Lille, and a member of the “Authorité de déchiffrement” for the local elections.
W. Perruquetti is Vicedeputy of INS2I CNRS.
J.P. Richard is an Expert for the French Ministry of Research, MENESR/MEIRIES.
R. Ushirobira was a Member (nominated) of the “Comité du Centre” of Inria Lille (Dec. 2013  Sept. 2016) and a Member of the “Commission de Développement Technologique” (CDT).
Licence: D. Efimov, Laboratory works in automatics, 20 h, EC de Lille.
Licence: D. Efimov, Practical works in automatics, 28 h, ISEN, Lille.
Licence: D. Efimov, Laboratory works in discrete systems, 20 h, ENSAM, Lille.
Licence: R. Ushirobira, Travaux Pratiques en Automatique, 8 h, U. Lille 1, France.
Licence: R. Ushirobira, Travaux Pratiques en Automatique, 24 h, ECLille, France.
Licence: R. Ushirobira, Travaux dirigés/Travaux Pratiques en Automatique, 12 h+9 h, U. Lille 1.
Master: D. Efimov, Analysis of dynamical systems, 24 h, U. Lille 1.
Master: R. Ushirobira, Travaux Pratiques en Automatique, 32 h, U. Lille 1.
Master: G. Zheng, Robotic, 20 h, U. Lille 1.
Master: G. Zheng, Automatic control, 24 h, U. Lille 1.
PhD: Hafiz Ahmed, “Modeling and synchronization of biological rhythms: from cells to oyster behavior”, 20132016, supervisors: D. Efimov, R. Ushirobira and D. Tran
PhD: Zilong Shao, “Oscilatory control of robot manipulator”, EC Lille, 20122016, supervisors: D. Efimov, W. Perruquetti, G. Zheng
PhD in progress: Haik Jan Davtjan, “Estimation in complex systems”, EC Lille, 2016, UCoCoS EU project, supervisors: D. Efimov, J.P. Richard
PhD in progress: Maxime Feingesicht, “Dynamic Observers for Control of Separeted Flows”, Ecole Centrale de Lille, 2015, supervisors: J.P. Richard, F. Kerherve, A. Polyakov
PhD in progress: Nadhynee Martinez Fonseca, “Nonasymptotic control and estimation problems in robotic system designed for manipulation of microorganisms”, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, 2015now, supervisors: I. ChairezOria, A. Polyakov
PhD in progress: Tatiana Kharkovskaya, “Interval Observers for Distributed Parametr Systems”, ITMO UniversityEC Lille, 2015, supervisors: D. Efimov, J.P. Richard and A. Kremlev
PhD in progress: Langueh Désiré Kokou, “Inversion a gauche, singularités d'inversion, immersion et formes normales pour les systèmes dynamiques”, 2015, supervisors: T. Floquet, G. Zheng
PhD in progress: Gabriele Perozzi, “Save exploration of aerodynamic field by microdron”, OneraRegion, 2015, supervisors: D. Efimov, J.M. Biannic and L. Planckaert
PhD in progress: Francisco LopezRamirez, “Control and estimation via implicit homogeneous Lyapunov function”, Inria, 2015, supervisors: D. Efimov, W. Perruquetti and A. Polyakov
PhD in progress: Guillaume Rance, “Asservissement paramétrique de systèmes flexibles à retard et application aux viseurs”, CIFRE Safran Electronics & Defense, 2014, supervisors: A. Quadrat, A. Quadrat, H. Mounier
PhD in progress: HaikJan Silm, “Estimation in complex systems”, 2016, supervisors: D. Efimov, R. Ushirobira, W. Michels, J.P. Richard
PhD in progress: Yue Wang, “Development of a blimp robot for indoor operation”, EC Lille, 2016, supervisors: D. Efimov, W. Perruquetti, G. Zheng
Master: Boussad Abci, EC Lille, 20152016, supervisors: D. Efimov, J.P. Richard
Master: Rabehi Djahid, EC Lille, 20152016, supervisors: D. Efimov, J.P. Richard
A. Quadrat was an Examiner Member of the PhD Thesis of Mohamed Belhocine, “Modélisation et analyse structurelle du fonctionnement dynamique des systèmes électriques”, ENS Cachan. He was also a Member of Recruiting Committee for a MCF CNU 2627 position at the University of Limoges.
J.P. Richard was an Examiner Member of the PhD Thesis of Arvo Kaldmae (Estonia), “Design of discretetime and delayed nonlinear systems”, of Lucien Etienne (Italy), “Elements of observation and estimation for networked control systems”, and of Zilong Shao (Centrale Lille) “Identification and control of positioncontrolled robot arm in the presence of joint flexibility”.
R. Ushirobira was a Member of Recruiting Committee for a MCF CNU 61 position at CNAM (Paris) and for a MCF CNU 61 position at ENSAE (Cergy).
Mediation: Scientific baccalaureate students. Meeting on the Inria platform EuraTechnologies (23/03/2016, Lille): “SN Lille Académie : À la découverte des sciences numériques !”.
Mediation: BeyondLab community. A coworking night event within BeyondLabon using “Living sensor” for water quality monitoring, featuring our PhD student Hafiz Ahmed (Lille, 16/03/2016).
Contribution to the prospective report “Systems & Control for the Future of Humanity” coordinated by F. LamnabhiLagarrigue, Research Agenda Task Force (to appear, special issue of Annual Reviews in Control to be distributed during the IFAC 2017).
The book “Mathématiques pour l’ingénieur” (2009, ISBN : 9789973008527 (ATAN, 385 pages)) has been downloaded more than 65000 times.