The research group that we have entitled fluminance from a contraction between the words “Fluid” and “Luminance” is dedicated to the extraction of information on fluid flows from image sequences and to the development of tools for the analysis and control of these flows. The objectives of the group are at the frontiers of several important domains that range from fluid mechanics to geophysics. One of the main originality of the fluminance group is to combine cutting-edge researches on data-assimilation and flow numerical modeling with an ability to conduct proper intensive experimental validations on prototype flows mastered in laboratory. The scientific objectives decompose in four main themes:

**Fluid flows characterization from images**

In this first axis, we aim at providing accurate measurements and consistent analysis of complex fluid flows through image analysis techniques.The application domain ranges from industrial processes and experimental fluid mechanics to environmental sciences. This theme includes also the use of non-conventional imaging techniques such as Schlieren techniques, Shadowgraphs, holography. The objective will be here to go towards 3D dense velocity measurements.

**Coupling dynamical model and image data**

We focus here on the study, through image data, of complex and partially known fluid flows involving complex boundary conditions, multi-phase fluids, fluids and structures interaction problems. Our credo is that image analysis can provide sufficiently fine observations on small and medium scales to construct models which, applied at medium and large scale, account accurately for a wider range of the dynamics scales. The image data and a sound modeling of the dynamical uncertainty at the observation scale should allow us to reconstruct the observed flow and to provide efficient real flows (experimental or natural) based dynamical modeling. Our final goal will be to go towards a 3D reconstruction of real flows, or to operate large motion scales simulations that fit real world flow data and incorporate an appropriate uncertainty modeling.

**Control and optimization of turbulent flows**

We are interested on active control and more precisely on closed-loop control. The main idea is to extract reliable image features to act on the flow. This approach is well known in the robot control community, it is called visual servoing. More generally, it is a technique to control a dynamic system from image features. We plan to apply this approach on flows involved in various domains such as environment, transport, microfluidic, industrial chemistry, pharmacy, food industry, agriculture, etc.

**Numerical models for geophysical flows simulation and analysis** Numerical models are very useful for environmental applications. Several difficulties must be handled simultaneously, in a multidisciplinary context. For example, in geophysics, media are highly heterogeneous and only few data are available. Stochastic models are often necessary to describe unresolved physical processes. Computational domains are characterized by complex 3D geometries, requiring adapted space discretization. Equations modeling flow and transport are transient, requiring also adapted time discretization. Moreover, these equations can be coupled together or with other equations in a global nonlinear system.
These large-scale models are very time and memory consuming. High performance computing is thus required to run these types of scientific simulations. Supercomputers and clusters are quite powerful, provided that the numerical models are written with a parallel paradigm.

The measurement of fluid representative features such as vector fields, potential functions or vorticity maps, enables physicists to have better understanding of experimental or geophysical fluid flows. Such measurements date back to one century and more but became an intensive subject of research since the emergence of correlation techniques to track fluid movements in pairs of images of a particles laden fluid or by the way of clouds photometric pattern identification in meteorological images. In computer vision, the estimation of the projection of the apparent motion of a 3D scene onto the image plane, referred to in the literature as optical-flow, is an intensive subject of researches since the 80's and the seminal work of B. Horn and B. Schunk . Unlike to dense optical flow estimators, the former approach provides techniques that supply only sparse velocity fields. These methods have demonstrated to be robust and to provide accurate measurements for flows seeded with particles. These restrictions and their inherent discrete local nature limit too much their use and prevent any evolutions of these techniques towards the devising of methods supplying physically consistent results and small scale velocity measurements. It does not authorize also the use of scalar images exploited in numerous situations to visualize flows (image showing the diffusion of a scalar such as dye, p ollutant, light index refraction, fluorescein,...). At the opposite, variational techniques enable in a well-established mathematical framework to estimate spatially continuous velocity fields, which should allow more properly to go towards the measurement of smaller motion scales. As these methods are defined through PDE's systems they allow quite naturally constraints to be included such as kinematic properties or dynamic laws governing the observed fluid flows. Besides, within this framework it is also much easier to define characteristic features estimation procedures on the basis of physically grounded data model that describes the relation linking the observed luminance function and some state variables of the observed flow. The Fluminance group has allowed a substantial progress in this direction with the design of dedicated dense estimation techniques to estimate dense fluid motion fields. See for a detailed review. More recently problems related to scale measurement and uncertainty estimation have been investigated . Dynamically consistent and highly robust techniques have been also proposed for the recovery of surface oceanic streams from satellite images . Very recently parameter-free approaches relying on uncertainty concept has been devised . This technique outperforms the state of the art.

Real flows have an extent of complexity, even in carefully controlled experimental conditions, which prevents any set of sensors from providing enough information to describe them completely. Even with the highest levels of accuracy, space-time coverage and grid refinement, there will always remain at least a lack of resolution and some missing input about the actual boundary conditions. This is obviously true for the complex flows encountered in industrial and natural conditions, but remains also an obstacle even for standard academic flows thoroughly investigated in research conditions.

This unavoidable deficiency of the experimental techniques is nevertheless more and more compensated by numerical simulations. The parallel advances in sensors, acquisition, treatment and computer efficiency allow the mixing of experimental and simulated data produced at compatible scales in space and time. The inclusion of dynamical models as constraints of the data analysis process brings a guaranty of coherency based on fundamental equations known to correctly represent the dynamics of the flow (e.g. Navier Stokes equations) . Conversely, the injection of experimental data into simulations ensures some fitting of the model with reality.

To enable data and models coupling to achieve its potential, some difficulties have to be tackled. It is in particular important to outline the fact that the coupling of dynamical models and image data are far from being straightforward. The first difficulty is related to the space of the physical model. As a matter of fact, physical models describe generally the phenomenon evolution in a 3D Cartesian space whereas images provides generally only 2D tomographic views or projections of the 3D space on the 2D image plane. Furthermore, these views are sometimes incomplete because of partial occlusions and the relations between the model state variables and the image intensity function are otherwise often intricate and only partially known. Besides, the dynamical model and the image data may be related to spatio-temporal scale spaces of very different natures which increases the complexity of an eventual multiscale coupling. As a consequence of these difficulties, it is necessary generally to define simpler dynamical models in order to assimilate image data. This redefinition can be done for instance on an uncertainty analysis basis, through physical considerations or by the way of data based empirical specifications. Such modeling comes to define inexact evolution laws and leads to the handling of stochastic dynamical models. The necessity to make use and define sound approximate models, the dimension of the state variables of interest and the complex relations linking the state variables and the intensity function, together with the potential applications described earlier constitute very stimulating issues for the design of efficient data-model coupling techniques based on image sequences.

On top of the problems mentioned above, the models exploited in assimilation techniques often suffer from some uncertainties on the parameters which define them. Hence, a new emerging field of research focuses on the characterization of the set of achievable solutions as a function of these uncertainties. This sort of characterization indeed turns out to be crucial for the relevant analysis of any simulation outputs or the correct interpretation of operational forecasting schemes. In this context, stochastic modeling play a crucial role to model and process uncertainty evolution along time. As a consequence, stochastic parameterization of flow dynamics has already been present in many contributions of the Fluminance group in the last years and will remain a cornerstone of the new methodologies investigated by the team in the domain of uncertainty characterization.

This wide theme of research problems is a central topic in our research group. As a matter of fact, such a coupling may rely on adequate instantaneous motion descriptors extracted with the help of the techniques studied in the first research axis of the fluminance group. In the same time, this coupling is also essential with respect to visual flow control studies explored in the third theme. The coupling between a dynamics and data, designated in the literature as a Data Assimilation issue, can be either conducted with optimal control techniques , or through stochastic filtering approaches , . These two frameworks have their own advantages and deficiencies. We rely indifferently on both approaches.

Fluid flow control is a recent and active research domain. A significant part of the work carried out so far in that field has been dedicated to the control of the transition from laminarity to turbulence. Delaying, accelerating or modifying this transition is of great economical interest for industrial applications. For instance, it has been shown that for an aircraft, a drag reduction can be obtained while enhancing the lift, leading consequently to limit fuel consumption. In contrast, in other application domains such as industrial chemistry, turbulence phenomena are encouraged to improve heat exchange, increase the mixing of chemical components and enhance chemical reactions. Similarly, in military and civilians applications where combustion is involved, the control of mixing by means of turbulence handling rouses a great interest, for example to limit infra-red signatures of fighter aircraft.

Flow control can be achieved in two different ways: passive or active control. Passive control provides a permanent action on a system. Most often it consists in optimizing shapes or in choosing suitable surfacing (see for example where longitudinal riblets are used to reduce the drag caused by turbulence). The main problem with such an approach is that the control is, of course, inoperative when the system changes. Conversely, in active control the action is time varying and adapted to the current system's state. This approach requires an external energy to act on the system through actuators enabling a forcing on the flow through for instance blowing and suction actions , . A closed-loop problem can be formulated as an optimal control issue where a control law minimizing an objective cost function (minimization of the drag, minimization of the actuators power, etc.) must be applied to the actuators . Most of the works of the literature indeed comes back to open-loop control approaches , , or to forcing approaches with control laws acting without any feedback information on the flow actual state. In order for these methods to be operative, the model used to derive the control law must describe as accurately as possible the flow and all the eventual perturbations of the surrounding environment, which is very unlikely in real situations. In addition, as such approaches rely on a perfect model, a high computational costs is usually required. This inescapable pitfall has motivated a strong interest on model reduction. Their key advantage being that they can be specified empirically from the data and represent quite accurately, with only few modes, complex flows' dynamics. This motivates an important research axis in the Fluminance group.

The team is strongly involved in numerical models for hydrogeology and geophysics. There are many scientific challenges in the area of groundwater simulations. This interdisciplinary research is very fruitful with cross-fertilizing subjects.

In geophysics, a main concern is to solve inverse problems in order to fit the measured data with the model. Generally, this amounts to solve a linear or nonlinear least-squares problem.

Models of geophysics are in general coupled and multi-physics. For example, reactive transport couples advection-diffusion with chemistry. Here, the mathematical model is a set of nonlinear Partial Differential Algebraic Equations. At each timestep of an implicit scheme, a large nonlinear system of equations arise. The challenge is to solve efficiently and accurately these large nonlinear systems.

Linear algebra is at the kernel of most scientific applications, in particular in physical or chemical engineering. The objectives are to analyze the complexity of these different methods, to accelerate convergence of iterative methods, to measure and improve the efficiency on parallel architectures, to define criteria of choice.

Best thesis award 2018 Applied and Industrial Mathematics Society -
Group for the Advancement of Engineering Numerical Methods (SMAI-GAMNI) http://

*Estimation of 2D independent mesoscale layered atmospheric motion fields*

Functional Description: This software enables to estimate a stack of 2D horizontal wind fields corresponding to a mesoscale dynamics of atmospheric pressure layers. This estimator is formulated as the minimization of a global energy function. It relies on a vertical decomposition of the atmosphere into pressure layers. This estimator uses pressure data and classification clouds maps and top of clouds pressure maps (or infra-red images). All these images are routinely supplied by the EUMETSAT consortium which handles the Meteosat and MSG satellite data distribution. The energy function relies on a data model built from the integration of the mass conservation on each layer. The estimator also includes a simplified and filtered shallow water dynamical model as temporal smoother and second-order div-curl spatial regularizer. The estimator may also incorporate correlation-based vector fields as additional observations. These correlation vectors are also routinely provided by the Eumetsat consortium.

Participant: Étienne Mémin

Contact: Étienne Mémin

*Estimation of 3D interconnected layered atmospheric motion fields*

Functional Description: This software extends the previous 2D version. It allows (for the first time to our knowledge) the recovery of 3D wind fields from satellite image sequences. As with the previous techniques, the atmosphere is decomposed into a stack of pressure layers. The estimation relies also on pressure data and classification clouds maps and top of clouds pressure maps. In order to recover the 3D missing velocity information, physical knowledge on 3D mass exchanges between layers has been introduced in the data model. The corresponding data model appears to be a generalization of the previous data model constructed from a vertical integration of the continuity equation.

Contact: Étienne Mémin

*Estimation of 2D dense motion fields*

Functional Description: This code allows the computation from two consecutive images of a dense motion field. The estimator is expressed as a global energy function minimization. The code enables the choice of different data models and different regularization functionals depending on the targeted application. Generic motion estimators for video sequences or fluid flows dedicated estimators can be set up. This software allows in addition the users to specify additional correlation based matching measurements. It enables also the inclusion of a temporal smoothing prior relying on a velocity vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stoke equation for Fluid motion analysis applications.

Participant: Étienne Mémin

Contact: Étienne Mémin

*Estimation of low order representation of fluid motion*

Functional Description: This code enables the estimation of a low order representation of a fluid motion field from two consecutive images.The fluid motion representation is obtained using a discretization of the vorticity and divergence maps through regularized Dirac measure. The irrotational and solenoidal components of the motion fields are expressed as linear combinations of basis functions obtained through the Biot-Savart law. The coefficient values and the basis function parameters are formalized as the minimizer of a functional relying on an intensity variation model obtained from an integrated version of the mass conservation principle of fluid mechanics.

Participants: Anne Cuzol and Étienne Mémin

Contact: Étienne Mémin

Participants: Christopher Mauzey, Étienne Mémin and Pierre Dérian

Partner: CSU Chico

Contact: Étienne Mémin

Keywords: Simulation - Energy - Contamination - Groundwater - Hydrogeology - Heterogeneity - Uncertainly - Multiscale

Scientific Description: The software platform contains a database which is interfaced through the web portal H2OWeb. It contains also software modules which can be used through the interface H2OGuilde. The platform H2OLab is an essential tool for the dissemination of scientific results. Currently, software and database are shared by the partners of the h2mno4 project.

Functional Description: The software platform H2OLab is devoted to stochastic simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous porous and fractured geological media.

-Modeling and numerical simulation of aquifers -Porous and fractured heterogeneous media -Flow with mixed finite elements -Solute transport with a Lagrangian method -Stochastic modeling for data uncertainty.

Participants: Géraldine Pichot, Grégoire Lecourt, Jean-Raynald De Dreuzy and Jocelyne Erhel

Partners: Université de Rennes 1 - CNRS - Université de Lyon - Université de Poitiers

Contact: Jocelyne Erhel

Keyword: Monte-Clarlo

Functional Description: We present an easy-to-use package for the parallelization of Lagrangian methods for partial differential equations. In addition to the reduction of computation time, the code aims at satisfying three properties:

simplicity: the user just has to add the algorithm governing the behaviour of the particles. portability: the possibility to use the package with any compiler and OS. action-replay: the ability of the package to replay a selected batch of particles.

The last property allows the user to replay and capture the whole sample path for selected particles of a batch. This feature is very useful for debugging and catching some relevant information.

Authors: Lionel Lenôtre, Géraldine Pichot, Lionel Lenôtre and Lionel Lenôtre

Contact: Géraldine Pichot

*Global Reactive Transport in 3D*

Keywords: Geochemistry - Dispersion - Scientific calculation - Simulation - Advection

Scientific Description: Participants : Édouard Canot, Jocelyne Erhel [correspondant] .

Version: version 2.0, April 2014

APP: registered

Programming language: C

Abstract: Reactive transport modeling has become an essential tool for understanding complex environmental problems. It is an important issue for MoMaS and C2S@EXA partners (see sections 8.2.5 , 8.2.3 ), in particular Andra. We have developed a method coupling transport and chemistry, based on a method of lines such that spatial discretization leads to a semi-discrete system of algebraic differential equations (DAE system). The main advantage is to use a complex DAE solver, which controls simultaneously the timestep and the convergence of Newton algorithm. The approach SIA uses a fixed-point method to solve the nonlinear system at each timestep, whereas the approach SNIA uses an explicit scheme.

The software suite GRT3D has four executable modules:

SIA1D: Sequential Iterative Approach for 1D domains,

GDAE1D: Global DAE approach for 1D domains,

SNIA3D: Sequential Non Iterative Approach for 1D, 2D or 3D domains.

GDAE3D: Global DAE approach for 1D, 2D or 3D domains. This module has three variants: the original one with logarithms, an optimized one still with logarithms, an optimized one which does not use logarithms.

Current work: extension of the chemistry module and parallelization.

Functional Description: Reactive transport modeling has become an essential tool for understanding complex environmental problems. It is an important issue for MoMaS and C2S@EXA partners, in particular Andra. We have developed a method coupling transport and chemistry, based on a method of lines such that spatial discretization leads to a semi-discrete system of algebraic differential equations (DAE system). The main advantage is to use a complex DAE solver, which controls simultaneously the timestep and the convergence of Newton algorithm. The approach SIA uses a fixed-point method to solve the nonlinear system at each timestep, whereas the approach SNIA uses an explicit scheme.

The software suite GRT3D has four executable modules:

SIA1D: Sequential Iterative Approach for 1D domains,

GDAE1D: Global DAE approach for 1D domains,

SNIA3D: Sequential Non Iterative Approach for 1D, 2D or 3D domains.

GDAE3D: Global DAE approach for 1D, 2D or 3D domains. This module has three variants: the original one with logarithms, an optimized one still with logarithms, an optimized one which does not use logarithms.

Participants: Caroline De Dieuleveult, Édouard Canot, Jocelyne Erhel, Nadir Soualem and Souhila Sabit

Partner: ANDRA

Contact: Jocelyne Erhel

This work is concerned with the design of motion estimation technique for image-based river velocimetry. The method proposed is based on an advection diffusion equation associated to the transport of large-scale quantity with a model of the unresolved small-scale contributions. Additionally, since there is no ground truth data for such type of image sequences, a new evaluation method to assess the results has been developed. It is based on trajectory reconstruction of few Lagrangian particles of interest and a direct comparison against their manually-reconstructed trajectories. The new motion estimation technique outperformed traditional optical flow and PIV-based methods used in hydrology . This study has been performed within the PhD thesis of Musaab Khalid and through a collaboration with the Irstea Lyon hydrology research group (HHLY).

The goal is to design a new image-based flow measurement method for large-scale industrial applications. From this point of view, providing in situ measurement technique requires: (i) the development of precise models relating the large-scale flow observations to the velocity; (ii) appropriate large-scale regularization strategies; and (iii) adapted seeding and lighting systems, like Hellium Filled Soap Bubles (HFSB) and led ramp lighting. This work conducted within the PhD of Romain Schuster in collaboration with the compagny ITGA has started in february 2016. The first step has been to evaluate the performances of a stochastic uncertainty motion estimator when using large scale scalar images, like those obtained when seeding a flow with smoke. The PIV characterization of flows on large fields of view requires an adaptation of the motion estimation method from image sequences. The backward shift of the camera coupled to a dense scalar seeding involves a large scale observation of the flow, thereby producing uncertainty about the observed phenomena. By introducing a stochastic term related to this uncertainty into the observation term, we obtained a significant improvement of the estimated velocity field accuracy. The technique was validated on a mixing layer in a wind tunnel for HFSB and smoke tracers and applied on a laboratory fume-hood . This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting on-site large-scale image-based measurements for indoor airflows characterization.

Our work focuses on the design of new tools for the estimation of 3D turbulent flow motion in the experimental setup of Tomo-PIV. This task includes both the study of physically-sound models on the observations and the fluid motion, and the design of low-complexity and accurate estimation algorithms. This year, we continued our investigation on the problem of efficient volume reconstruction. We have developed an ensemble assimilation methods for the fast reconstruction of 3D tomo-PIV motion field. The approach relies on a simplified dynamics of the flow and is a generalization of one of the popular emerging flow reconstruction technique of the PIV community referred to as "Shake the box » (STB). The study developed within an Irstea post-doctoral funding introduced a novel approach originated from the data assimilation technique comprising a sampling-based optimal estimation algorithm, namely a group of ensemble-based filtering variational schemes. We found that employing such an ensemble-based optimal estimation method helped tackling the problems associated with STB: the inaccurate predictor and/or the robustness of the optimization procedure. The proposed method (ENS) was quantitatively evaluated with synthetic particle image data built by transporting virtual particles in a turbulent cylinder wake-flow at Reynolds number equal to 3900 . The study will be continued within an Irstea doctoral funding.

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In this axis of work, we explore the use of optimal control techniques for the coupling of Large Eddies Simulation (LES) techniques and 2D image data. The objective is to reconstruct a 3D flow from a set of simultaneous time resolved 2D image sequences visualizing the flow on a set of 2D planes enlightened with laser sheets. This approach is experimented on shear layer flows and on wake flows generated on the wind tunnel of Irstea Rennes. Within this study we aim to explore techniques to enrich large-scale dynamical models by the introduction of uncertainty terms or through the definition of subgrid models from the image data. This research theme is related to the issue of turbulence characterization from image sequences. Instead of predefined turbulence models, we aim here at tuning from the data the value of coefficients involved in traditional LES subgrid models. A 4DVar assimilation technique based on the numerical code Incompact3D has been implemented for that purpose to control the inlet and initial conditions in order to reconstruct a turbulent wake flow behind an unknown obstacle . We extended this first data assimilation technique to control the subgrid parameters. This study is performed in collaboration with Sylvain Laizet (Imperial College). In another axis of research, in collaboration with the CSTB Nantes centre and within the PhD of Yacine Ben Ali we will explore the definition of efficient data assimilation schemes for wind engineering. The goal is here to couple Reynolds average model to pressure data at the surface of buildings. The final purpose will consist in proposing improved data-driven simulation models for architects.

Estimating the parameters of geophysical dynamic models is an important task in Data Assimilation (DA) technique used for forecast initialization and reanalysis. In the past, most parameter estimation strategies were derived by state augmentation, yielding algorithms that are easy to implement but may exhibit convergence difficulties. The Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is considered advantageous because it employs two iterative steps to estimate the model state and the model parameter separately. In this work, we propose a novel ensemble formulation of the Maximization step in EM that allows a direct optimal estimation of physical parameters using iterative methods for linear systems. This departs from current EM formulations that are only capable of dealing with additive model error structures. This contribution shows how the EM technique can be used for dynamics identification problem with a model error parameterized as arbitrary complex form. The proposed technique is used for the identification of stochastic subgrid terms that account for processes unresolved by a geophysical fluid model. This method, along with the augmented state technique, has been evaluated to estimate such subgrid terms through high resolution data. Compared to the augmented state technique, our method is shown to yield considerably more accurate parameters. In addition, in terms of prediction capacity, it leads to smaller generalization error as caused by the overfitting of the trained model on presented data and eventually better forecasts .

During the PhD thesis of Valentin Resseguier we have proposed a new decomposition of the fluid velocity in terms of a large-scale continuous component with respect to time and a small-scale non continuous random component. Within this general framework, an uncertainty based representation of the Reynolds transport theorem and Navier-Stokes equations can be derived, based on physical conservation laws. This physically relevant stochastic model has been applied in the context of POD-Galerkin methods. This uncertainty modeling methodology provides a theoretically grounded technique to define an appropriate subgrid tensor as well as drift correction terms. The pertinence of this stochastic reduced order model has been successfully assessed on several wake flows at different Reynold number. It has been shown to be much more stable than the usual reduced order model construction techniques. Beyond the definition of a stable reduced order model, the modeling under location uncertainty paradigm offers a unique way to analyse from the data of a turbulent flow the action of the small-scale velocity components on the large-scale flow. Regions of prominent turbulent kinetic energy, direction of preferential diffusion, as well as the small-scale induced drift can be identified and analyzed to decipher key players involved in the flow. This study has been published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics . Note that these reduced order models can be extended to a full system of stochastic differential equations driving all the temporal modes of the reduced system (and not only the small-scale modes). This full stochastic system has been evaluated on wake flow at moderate Reynolds number. For this flow the system has shown to provide very good uncertainty quantification properties as well as meaningful physical behavior with respect to the simulation of the neutral modes of the dynamics. This study described in the PhD of Valentin Resseguier will be soon submitted to a journal paper.

Estimation and control of fluid systems is an extremely hard problem. The use of models in combination with data is central to take advantage of all information we have on the system. Unfortunately all flows do not present the same physical and mathematical behaviour, thus using models and methodologies specialised to the flow physics is necessary to reach high performances.

A class of flows, denoted "oscillator flows", are characterised by unstable modes of the linearised operator. A consequence is the dominance of relatively regular oscillations associated with a nonlinear saturation. Despite the non-linear behaviour, associated structures and dynamical evolution are relatively easy to predict. Canonical configurations are the cylinder wake flow or the flow over an open cavity.

By opposition to that, "amplifier flows" are linearly stable with regard to the linearised operator. However, due to their convective nature, a wide range of perturbations are amplified in time and convected away such that it vanishes at long time. The consequence is the high sensitivity to perturbations and the broad band response that forbid a low rank representation. Jets and mixing layers show this behaviour and a wide range of industrial applications are affected by these broad band perturbations. It constitutes then a class of problems that are worth to treat separately since it is one of the scientific locks that render hard the transfer of methodologies existing in flow control and estimation to industrial applications.

There exists a type of models, that we will denote as "parabolised", that are able to efficiently represent amplifier flows. These models, such as parabolised stability equations and one-way Navier-Stokes propagate, in the frequency domain, hydrodynamic instability waves over a given turbulent mean flow. We can note that these models, by their structure, give access to a natural experimental implementation. They are an ingredient adapted to represent the system, but have a mathematical structure strongly different from the dynamical models classically used in control and data assimilation. It is then important to develop new methodologies of control, estimation and data assimilation with these models to reach our objectives. Moreover, inventing new models by introducing the modelling under location uncertainties in these parabolised models will be perfectly adapted to represent the evolution and the variability of an instability propagating within a turbulent flow. It will be consistent with actual postprocessing of experimental data performed in similar flow configurations.

In this research axis we have devised a principle to derive representation of flow dynamics under uncertainty.
Such an uncertainty is formalized through the introduction of a random term that enables taking into account
large-scale approximations or truncation effects performed within the dynamics analytical constitution steps.
This includes for instance the modeling of unresolved scales interaction in large eddies simulation (LES) or in
Reynolds average numerical simulation (RANS), but also partially known forcing. Rigorously derived from a stochastic
version of the Reynolds transport theorem , this framework, referred to as modeling under location
uncertainty, encompasses several meaningful mechanisms for turbulence modeling.
It indeed introduces without any supplementary assumption the following pertinent mechanisms for turbulence modeling:
(i) a dissipative operator related to the mixing effect of the large-scale components by the small-scale velocity;
(ii) a multiplicative noise representing small-scale energy backscattering; and (iii) a modified advection term related
to the so-called *turbophoresis* phenomena, attached to the migration of inertial particles in regions of lower
turbulent diffusivity.

In a series of papers we have shown how such modeling can be applied to provide stochastic representations of a variety of classical geophysical flows dynamics , , . Numerical simulations and uncertainty quantification have been performed on Quasi Geostophic approximation (QG) of oceanic models. It has been shown that such models lead to remarkable estimation of the unresolved errors at variance to classical eddy viscosity based models. The noise brings also an additional degree of freedom in the modeling step and pertinent diagnostic relations and variations of the model can be obtained with different scaling assumptions of the turbulent kinetic energy (i.e. of the noise amplitude). The performances of such systems have been assessed also on an original stochastic representation of the Lorenz 63 derived from the modeling under location uncertainty . In this study it has been shown that the stochastic version enabled to explore in a much faster way the region of the deterministic attractor. This effort has been undertaken within a fruitful collaboration with Bertrand Chapron (LOPS/IFREMER). In the PhD of Long Li, we continue this effort. The goal is to propose relevant techniques to define or calibrate the noise term from data. In that prospect, we intend to explore statistical learning techniques.

The models under location uncertainty recently introduced by Mémin (2014) provide a new outlook on LES modeling for turbulence studies. These models are derived from a stochastic transport principle. The associated stochastic conservation equations are similar to the filtered Navier- Stokes equation wherein we observe a sub-grid scale dissipation term. However, in the stochastic version, an extra term appears, termed as "velocity bias", which can be treated as a biasing/modification of the large-scale advection by the small scales. This velocity bias, introduced artificially in the literature, appears here automatically through a decorrelation assumption of the small scales at the resolved scale. All sub-grid contributions for the stochastic models are defined by the small-scale velocity auto-correlation tensor. This large scale modeling has been assed and compared to several classical large-scale models on a flow over a circular cylinder at Re ∼ 3900 and wall-bounded flows . For all these flows the modeling under uncertainty has provided better results than classical large eddies simulation models. Within the PhD of Yacine Ben Ali we will explore with the CSTB Nantes centre the application of such models for the definition of Reynolds average simulation (RANS) models for wind engineering applications.

The overarching goal of this interdisciplinary project is to use variational principles to derive deterministic and stochastic models and corresponding accurate and efficient structure preserving discretizations and to use these schemes to obtain a deeper understanding of the principle conservation laws of stochastic fluid dynamics. The newly developed systematic discretization framework is based on discrete variational principles whose highly structured procedures shall be exploited to develop a general software framework that applies automatic code generation. This project, will first provide new stochastic fluid models and suitable approximations, with potential future applications in climate science using the developed methods to perform accurate long term simulations while quantifying the solutions’ uncertainties. The generality of our approach addresses also other research areas such as electrodynamics (EDyn), magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and plasma physics.

The common thread of this work is the problem set by J. Leray in 1934 : does a regular solution of the Navier-Stokes
equations (NSE) with a smooth initial data develop a singularity in finite time, what is the precise structure of a
global weak solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, and are we able to prove any uniqueness result of such a solution.
This is a very hard problem for which there is for the moment no answer. Nevertheless, this question leads us to reconsider
the theory of Leray for the study of the Navier-Stokes equations in the whole space with an additional eddy viscosity term
that models the Reynolds stress in the context of large-scale flow modelling. It appears that Leray's theory cannot be
generalized turnkey for this problem, so that things must be reconsidered from the beginning.
This problem is approached by a regularization process using mollifiers, and particular attention must be paid to the
eddy viscosity term. For this regularized problem and when the eddy viscosity has enough regularity, we have been able
to prove the existence of a global unique solution that is of class

Within a collaboration with L. Berselli (Univ. Pisa, Italy) we have achieved a study on the well known Bardina’s turbulent model . In this problem, we considered the Helmholtz filter usually used within the framework of Large Eddy Simulation. We carried out a similar analysis, by showing in particular that no singularity occurs for Bardina’s model.

Within the same collaboration, we considered the three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with non stationary source terms chosen in a suitable space. We proved the existence of Leray-Hopf weak solutions and that it is possible to characterize (up to sub-sequences) their long-time averages, which satisfy the Reynolds averaged equations, involving a Reynolds stress. Moreover, we showed that the turbulent dissipation is bounded by the sum of the Reynolds stress work and of the external turbulent fluxes, without any additional assumption, than that of dealing with Leray-Hopf weak solutions. Finally, we considered ensemble averages of solutions, associated with a set of different forces and we proved that the fluctuations continue to have a dissipative effect on the mean flow.

Another study in collaboration with B. Pinier, P. Chandramouli and E. Memin has been undertaken.
This work takes place within the context of the PhD work of B. Pinier.
We have tested the performances of an incompressible turbulence Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes one-closure
equation model in a boundary layer, which requires the determination of the mixing length

To date no satisfying model exists to explain the mean velocity profile within the whole turbulent layer of canonical wall bounded flows. We propose a modification of the velocity profile expression that ensues from the stochastic representation of fluid flows dynamics proposed recently in the group and referred to as "modeling under location uncertainty". This framework introduces in a rigorous way a subgrid term generalizing the eddy-viscosity assumption and an eddy-induced advection term resulting from turbulence inhomogeneity. This latter term gives rise to a theoretically well-grounded model for the transitional zone between the viscous sublayer and the turbulent sublayer. An expression of the small-scale velocity component is also provided in the viscous zone. Numerical assessment of the results have been performed for turbulent boundary layer flows, pipe flows and channel flows at various Reynolds numbers .

The goal was to design a database for the evaluation of the different techniques developed in the Fluminance group. The first challenge was to enlarge a database mainly based on two-dimensional flows, with three-dimensional turbulent flows. Synthetic image sequences based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence and on circular cylinder wake have been provided. These images have been completed with time resolved Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in wake and mixing layers flows. This database provides different realistic conditions to analyse the performance of the methods: time steps between images, level of noise, Reynolds number, large-scale images. The second challenge was to carry out orthogonal dual plane time resolved stereoscopic PIV measurements in turbulent flows. The diagnostic employed two orthogonal and synchronized stereoscopic PIV measurements to provide the three velocity components in planes perpendicular and parallel to the streamwise flow direction. These temporally resolved planar slices observations have been be used within a 4DVar assimilation technique, to reconstruct three-dimensional turbulent flows from data . The third challenge was to carry out a time resolved tomoPIV experiments in a turbulent wake flow.

We proposed a computationally eﬃcient ﬂow reconstruction technique, exploiting homogeneity in a given direction, to recreate three dimensional instantaneous turbulent velocity ﬁelds from snapshots of two dimension planar ﬁelds. This methodology, termed as ’snapshot optimisation’ or SO, can help provide 3D data-sets for studies which are currently restricted by the limitations of experimental measurement techniques. The SO method aims at optimising the error between an inlet plane with a homogeneous direction and snap-shots, obtained over a suﬃcient period of time, on the observation plane. The observations are carried out on a plane perpendicular to the inlet plane with a shared edge normal to the homogeneity direction. The method is applicable to all ﬂows which display a direction of homogeneity such as cylinder wake ﬂows, channel ﬂow, mixing layer, and jet (axi-symmetric). The ability of the method is assessed with two synthetic data-sets, and three experimental PIV data-sets. A good reconstruction of the large-scale structures are observed for all cases. This study has been recently submitted to the journal "Experiments in Fluids".

This study aims at controlling one of the prototypical flow configurations encountered in fluid mechanics: the spatially developing turbulent shear layer occuring between two parallel incident streams with different velocities. Our goal is to maintain the shear-layer in a desired state and thus to reject upstream perturbations. In our conference IFAC paper (https://

We study the properties of a geochemical model involving aqueous and precipitation-dissolution reactions at a local equilibrium in a diluted solution. This model can be derived from the minimization of the free Gibbs energy subject to linear constraints. By using logarithmic variables, we define another minimization problem subject to different linear constraints with reduced size. The new objective function is strictly convex, so that uniqueness is straightforward. Moreover, existence conditions are directly related to the totals, which are the parameters in the mass balance equation. These results allow us to define a partition of the totals into mineral states, where a given subset of minerals are present. This precipitation diagram is inspired from thermodynamic diagrams where a phase depends on physical parameters. Using the polynomial structure of the problem, we provide characterizations and an algorithm to compute the precipitation diagram. Numerical computations on some examples illustrate this approach. This work, supported by ANDRA, was presented at a workshop and will be published in the journal Computational Geosciences .

Reactive transport modeling is a critical issue for energy industry, with application to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and geothermy. In this work, we focus on mathematical modeling and numerical solution of reactive transport in porous media. We study reaction kinetics leading to the appearance or disappearance of pure phases and present a mathematical model of PDEs with discontinuous right-hand sides. We propose a regularization process to obtain a PDE system with continuous right-hand sides which can be numerically solved. Using a simple academic case, we illustrate the benefits of our approach.

This work, supported by IFPEN, was presented at a workshop and an international conference .

Sparse linear systems

This work was presented at an international conference (invited talk) .

*duration 36 months.*
This partnership between Inria, Irstea and ITGA funds the PhD of Romain Schuster. The goal of this PhD is
to design new image-based flow measurement methods for the study of industrial fluid flows.
Those techniques will be used in particular to calibrate industrial fume hood.

*duration 36 months.*
This partnership between Inria, Irstea and CSTB funds the PhD of Yacine Ben Ali. This PhD aims to design new data assimilation scheme for Reynolds Average Simulation (RANS) of flows involved in wind engineering and buildings construction. The goal pursued here consists to couple RANS models and surface pressure data in order to define data driven models with accurate turbulent parameterization.

*duration 48 months.*
The SEACS project whose acronym stands for: “Stochastic modEl-dAta-Coupled representationS
for the analysis, simulation and reconstruction of upper ocean dynamics” is a Joint Research Initiative between the three Britanny clusters of excellence of the "Laboratoires d'Excellence" program: Cominlabs, Lebesgue and LabexMer centered on numerical sciences, mathematics and oceanography respectively. Within this project we aim at studying the potential of large-scale oceanic dynamics modeling under uncertainty for ensemble forecasting and satellite image data assimilation.

*duration 48 months.*
The BECOSE project aims to extend the scope of sparsity techniques much beyond the academic setting of random and well-conditioned dictionaries. In particular, one goal of the project is to step back from the popular L1-convexification of the sparse representation problem and consider more involved nonconvex formulations, both from a methodological and theoretical point of view. The algorithms will be assessed in the context of tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a rapidly growing imaging technique in fluid mechanics that will have strong impact in several industrial sectors including environment, automotive and aeronautical industries. The consortium gathers the Fluminance and Panama Inria research teams, the Research Center for Automatic Control of Nancy (CRAN), The Research Institute of Communication and Cybernetics of Nantes (IRCCyN), and ONERA, the French Aerospace Lab.

Contract with ANDRA (National Agency for Nuclear Waste) Duration: three years from November 2015. Title: reactive transport in fractured porous media Coordination: Jocelyne Erhel. Partners: Geosciences Rennes. Abstract: Even in small numbers, fractures must be carefully considered for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. They critically enhance diffusivity, speed up solute transport, extend mixing fronts and, in turn, modify the physicochemical conditions of reactivity around possible storage sites. This year, we studied geochemistry models, which could be coupled with flow and transport models.

Contract with IFPEN (Institut Français du Pétrole et Energies Nouvelles) Duration: three years from October 2016. Title: Fully implicit Formulations for the Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Reactive Transport Coordination: Jocelyne Erhel. Abstract: Modeling multiphase flow in porous media coupled with fluid-rock chemical reactions is essential in order to understand the origin of sub-surface natural resources and optimize their extraction. This project aims to determine optimal strategies to solve the coupled transport and chemical reaction equations describing the physical processes at work in reactive multiphase flow in porous media. Three different formulations show great potential to accurately solve these equations. Two are fully implicit ("Reactive Coats" and "Semi-smooth Newton") and one is an operator splitting approach. These formulations are still incomplete at the moment. The work will focus on extending the existing formulations to more complex physical phenomena, study their stability, convergence and theoretical equivalence. Another objective is to provide practical solutions to efficiently solve the resulting non-linear systems.

Contract with ANR, program Modèles Numériques

Duration: four years from November 2012 until April 2017.

Title: Original Optimized Object Oriented Numerical Model for Heterogeneous Hydrogeology.

Coordination: Jocelyne Erhel and Géraldine Pichot, with Fabienne Cuyollaa.

Partners: Geosciences Rennes, University of Poitiers, University of Lyon 1, Andra, Itasca.

International collaborations: University of San Diego (USA), UPC, Barcelona (Spain)

Web page: http://

Abstract: The project H2MNO4 develops numerical models for reactive transport in heterogeneous media. It defines six mathematical and computational challenges and three applications for environmental problems with societal impact.

Title: Mathematics for Nuclear industry

Duration: From 2016 to 2019

Coordination: C. Cancès

Webpage: http://

Abstract: The working group MANU is a follow-up to the group MOMAS. It covers many subjects related to mathematical modeling and numerical simulations for problems arising from nuclear industry and nuclear waste disposal. The team organizes a workshop on reactive transport, Paris, February 2018.

Title: Multiple Scale Ocean Model

Duration: From 2018 to 2021

Coordination: Bruno Deremble (CNRS LMD/ENS Paris)

Abstract: The objective of this project is to propose a numerical framework of a multiscale ocean model and to demonstrate its utility in the understanding of the interaction between the mean current and eddies.

Title: Large-scale Fluid Dynamics analysis from FLow Uncertainty

International Partner (Institution - Laboratory - Researcher):

Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) - Faculty of Engineering - Guillermo Artana

Start year: 2016

See also: http://

The first objective of this associate team is primarily concerned with the establishment of efficient fluid flow image data analysis procedures. This concerns for instance data assimilation issues to reconstruct meaningful numerical representation of experimental fluid flows for analysis purpose. The second objective focuses on the incorporation of uncertainties in the flow dynamical evolution models.

**Imperial College**, London (UK), Collaboration with Dan Crişan and Darryl Holm on Stochastic transport
for the upper ocean dynamics

**Chico California State University** (USA),
We have pursued our collaboration with the group of Shane Mayor on the GPU implementation of wavelet based
motion estimator for Lidar data. This code is developped in coproperty between Inria and Chico.

**Royal Society funding**, collaboration between Dominique Heitz, Etienne Mémin and Sylvain Laizet (Imperial College) on
Stochastic large-eddies simulation and data assimilation for the reconstruction of 3D turbulent flows.

** MATH-GEO**

Title: MATHematical methods for GEOphysical flows

International Partners (Institution - Laboratory - Researcher):

Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) - CIMA (Centro de investigaciones del mar y de la Atmósfera) - Juan Ruiz

Universidad de la Republica Uruguay (Uruguay) - IMFIA: Instituto de Mecánica de los Fluidos e Ingeniería Ambiental, INCO: Instituto de Computación, Facultad de Ingeniería - Mónica Fossati

CMM (Chile) - Center for Mathematical Modeling - Axel Osses

Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola (USIL) (Peru) - Faculty of Engineering Alejandro Paredes

Duration: 2018 - 2019

Start year: 2018 http://

Nonlinear processes, such as advection and turbulent mixing, play a central role in geophysical sciences. The theory of nonlinear dynamical systems provides a systematic way to study these phenomena. Its stochastic extension also forms the basis of modern data analysis techniques, predictability studies and data assimilation methods. Contributions in the field of Topology and Dynamics of Chaos include methods conceived to unveil the structure organizing flows in phase space, building the gap between data and low-dimensional modeling. Low-order models in climate dynamics are highly desirable, since they can provide solutions in cases where high-resolution numerical simulations cannot be implemented, as in short-term wind forecasting. At the same time, the procedure provides a tool-kit for model validation, emulation or inter-model comparison, with interesting prospects in all fields of oceanographic and atmospheric sciences, including climate detection and attribution. The strategy constitutes an unprecedented and promising perspective, offering an original approach to the subject, with mathematical concepts that are not necessarily widespread in the geophysics scientific community. This proposal gathers specialists with a know-how in the most challenging aspects of the focused research field: coherent structure detection in fluid flows for the exploration and interactive visualization of scientific data (LIMSI France), data assimilation and fluid motion analysis from image sequences (Inria Rennes), numerical models and data assimilation (CMM-Chile) stochastic models for climate dynamics with application to El Niño Ocean models (USIL-Peru), mathematical methods for weather and climate (CIMA-UBA & IMIT / IFAECI, Argentina), geophysical flows and dynamical systems (LMD France), mixing structures and Lagrangian analysis of multisatellite data (LOCEAN France), marine and estuarine hydrodynamic and water properties numerical models (INCO & IMFIA-Uruguay), in situ measurements of oceanographic conditions (CEBC France, in program with CNES France and CONAE Argentina), global modelling technique and topological characterization of flows (CORIA with CESBIO, France).

1 week visit of Souhila Sabit (Researcher University of Tiaret, Algeria) to work with Jocelyne Erhel.

3 weeks visit of Alejandro Gronskis (Researcher Conicet Argentina) to work with Dominique Heitz, Etienne Mémin and Pranav Chandramouli within the associate team LFD

3 weeks visit of Guillermo Artana (Professor U. of Buenos Aires) to work with Dominique Heitz, Christophe Collewet and Johan Carlier within the associate team LFD

10 days visit of Georg Gottwald (Professor U. of Sydney) to work with Etienne Mémin.

J. Erhel organized with J-R. de Dreuzy (OSUR), T. Le Borgne (OSUR) and G. Pichot (Inria) the international conference CWMR (Saint-Malo, France, June 2018).

J. Erhel organized with T. Faney (IFPEN) and A. Michel (IFPEN) a workshop on reactive transport (Paris, France, February 2018).

E. Mémin organized the national colloquium on data assimilation (Rennes, september 2018).

Jocelyne Erhel

international advisory committee of the parallel CFD conferences (Indianapolis, USA, May 2018).

program committee of the workshop Visualization in Environmental Sciences 2018 (co-event of EuroVis)

scientific committee of the conference JEMP (Nantes, October 2018)

Scientific Committee of the workshop "Parallel solution methods for systems arising from PDEs" (Marseille, september 2019)

Jocelyne Erhel

member of the editorial board of ETNA.

member of the editorial board of ESAIM:Proceedings and Surveys.

Etienne Mémin

Associate editor for the Int. Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV)

Associate editor for the Image and Vision Computing Journal (IVC)

Jocelyne Erhel: Reviewer for the journals Computational Geosciences, Software X, Parallel Computing

Dominique Heitz: Reviewer for Exp. in Fluids, Fire Technologies

Etienne Mémin: Reviewer for Tellus-A, Journ. of Fluid Mech., Im. Vis. Comp., Exp. in Fluids, Journ. of Comp. Phys.

Gilles Tissot: Reviewer for Journal of Sound and Vibration, Fluid Dynamics Research.

Werner Bauer

Gung Ho Network Meeting, UK, July 2018

Jocelyne Erhel

Workshop on analysis, Rennes, France, January

Scientific Days of Inria, Bordeaux, France, June

Dominique Heitz

CCFTL 2018, Dourdan, France, September 17-21, 2018. Keynote lecture

Active Flow and Combustion Control 2018, TU Berlin, Germany, September 19-21, 2018. Keynote lecture

Roger Lewandowski

Colloquium Virginia Tech (mars 2018)

Colloquium Pisa (Novembre 2018)

Kolmogorov Days in Évry 2018, September 26-28, 2018, Évry , France.

Etienne Mémin

Classical and Modern Results in Nonlinear Filtering and Applications, Imperial College London, November 2018, GB.

ECCM - ECFD 2018 - 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics - 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics. Glasgow, GB.

In Particle methods and data assimilation, Imperial College London, May 2018, GB.

J. Erhel is scientific coordinator of the website Interstices (since June 2012). https://

J. Erhel is a member of the scientific council of IFPEN, since April 2016.

Jocelyne Erhel

correspondent of Maison de la Simulation for Inria Rennes.

correspondent of AMIES for Inria Rennes, from September 2015.

member of the maths thesis committee of IRMAR, from January 2017.

Dominique Heitz

Responsible of the Irstea ACTA Team

Member of Pôle Cristal scientific council

Member of Irstea OPAALE research unit Executive Committee

Member of Irstea center of Rennes Executive Committee

Roger Lewandowski

Président du Comité de liaison du groupe GAMNI-SMAI

Président of the Blaise Pascal award jury

Président of GAMNI-SMAI PhD thesis award

Corresponding person of the SMAI in Rennes

Responsible of the group "Mathematical modeling" of IRMAR

Member of the scientific council of IRMAR,

Member of Mathematical teaching council of U. Rennes I

Member of the scientific council of the Henri Lebesgue Centre

Etienne Mémin

Member of the scientific council of LEFE-MANU action of CNRS INSU

Member of the comity GAMNI-SMAI

Licence: Jocelyne Erhel, Optimisation, 24h, niveau L3, ENSAI Rennes

Licence : Dominique Heitz, Mécanique des fluides, 30h, niveau L2 INSA Rennes

Master: Jocelyne Erhel, arithmétique flottante, 4h, niveau M1, INSA Rennes

Master : Dominique Heitz, Mécanique des fluides, 25h, niveau M1, Dep GMA INSA Rennes

Master: Roger Lewandowski, Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations, M2, master « fondamental mathematics ».

Master : Etienne Mémin, Analyse du mouvement, Master Informatique, 15h, niveau M2, Université de Rennes 1.

Master : Etienne Mémin, Vision par ordinateur , 15h, niveau M2, ESIR Université de Rennes 1.

Master : Gilles Tissot, mathematics for acoustics, 20h, niveau M1, Université du Mans.

PhD in progress: Pierre-Marie Gibert, University of Lyon, October 2015, co-advisors D. Tromeur-Dervout and Jocelyne Erhel.

PhD in progress: Bastien Hamlat, University of Rennes 1, October 2016, co-advisors Jocelyne Erhel and A. Michel.

PhD in progress : Benoit Pinier, Scale similarity and uncertainty for Ocean-Atmosphere coupled models, started October 2014, supervisors: Roger Lewandowski, Etienne Mémin

PhD in progress : Pranav Chandamouli, Turbulent complex flows reconstruction via data assimilation in large eddy models, started October 2015, Dominique Heitz, Etienne Mémin.

PhD in progress : Romain Schuster, Large-scale fluid motion estimation, started October 2016, Dominique Heitz, Etienne Mémin.

PhD in progress : Long Li, Data assimilation and stochastic transport for the upper ocean dynamics, started November 2017, Etienne Mémin.

PhD in progress : Yacine Ben Ali, Variational assimilation of RANS models for wind engineering, started November 2017, Dominique Heitz, Etienne Mémin, Gilles Tissot.

PhD in progress : Dinh Duong Nguyen, Regular and singular solutions of Navier-Stokes equations with eddy viscosity, started September 2017 , Roger Lewandowski.

PhD in progress : Robin Billard, Modelling of non-conventional perforated acoustic liners, Université du Mans, started December 2017, Gilles Tissot.

Johan Carlier

Kevin Chatelain, PhD, Polytech’Orléans, (examinateur)

Jocelyne Erhel

Jérôme Carrayrou, HdR, Univ. Strasbourg (examinatrice)

Nicolas Peton, PhD, Univ. Paris (rapporteur)

Samuel Corre, PhD, INSA Rennes (examinatrice)

G. Moreau, PhD, Univ. Lyon (examinatrice)

Dominique Heitz

Jianhua Fan, PhD, INSA de Rennes (Rapporteur).

Roger Lewandowski

Charles Pelletier, PhD Univ. Grenoble Alpes( Rapporteur)

Etienne Mémin

Pranav Chandramouli, PhD U. Rennes I (Examinateur)

Musaab Khalid, PhD U. Rennes I (Examinateur),

Jocelyne Erhel

member of the Inria local committee for health and safety (référent chercheur) 2016-2018.

member of the Inria administrative commission (CAP) for researchers, from January 2016.

member of the Inria national committee for secondment, 2016.

Etienne Mémin

Responsible of the "Commission Développement Technologique" Inria Rennes

Member of the "Commission Personnel" Inria-IRISA Rennes

Jocelyne Erhel

présidente du jury du rallye de mathématiques du CNED, since 2017.

Jocelyne Erhel

talk about melting ice caps, general public, Musée des Arts et Métiers, March 2018.

talk about spreading epidemics, stage de collégiens, January and February 2018.

contribution to website redesign of Interstices, 2017-2018.

Jocelyne Erhel

scientific coordinator of the website Interstices (since June 2012).

contribution to website redesign of Interstices, 2017-2018.