Section: Application Domains
Audio scene analysis
source separation, multi-channel audio, source characterization, source localization, compressive sensing
Audio signals are commonly the result of the superimposition of various sources mixed together : speech and surrounding noise, multiple speakers, instruments playing simultaneously, etc...
Source separation aims at recovering (approximations of) the various sources participating to the audio mixture, using spatial and spectral criteria, which can be based either on a priori knowledge or on property learned from the mixture itself.
Audio source separation
The general problem of “source separation” consists in recovering a set of unknown sources from the observation of one or several of their mixtures, which may correspond to as many microphones. In the special case of speaker separation, the problem is to recover two speech signals contributed by two separate speakers that are recorded on the same media. The former issue can be extended to channel separation, which deals with the problem of isolating various simultaneous components in an audio recording (speech, music, singing voice, individual instruments, etc.). In the case of noise removal, one tries to isolate the “meaningful” signal, holding relevant information, from parasite noise.
It can even be appropriate to view audio compression as a special case of source separation, one source being the compressed signal, the other being the residue of the compression process. The former examples illustrate how the general source separation problem spans many different problems and implies many foreseeable applications.
While in some cases –such as multichannel audio recording and processing– the source separation problem arises with a number of mixtures which is at least the number of unknown sources, the research on audio source separation within the METISS project-team rather focusses on the so-called under-determined case. More precisely, we consider the cases of one sensor (mono recording) for two or more sources, or two sensors (stereo recording) for sources.
We address the problem of source separation by combining spatial information and spectral properties of the sources. However, as we want to resort to as little prior information as possible we have designed self-learning schemes which adapt their behaviour to the properties of the mixture itself  .
Compressive sensing of acoustic fields
Complex audio scene may also be dealt with at the acquisition stage, by using “intelligent” sampling schemes. This is the concept behind a new field of scientific investigation : compressive sensing of acoustic fields.
The challenge of this research is to design, implement and evaluate sensing architectures and signal processing algorithms which would enable to acquire a reasonably accurate map of an acoustic field, so as to be able to locate, characterize and manipulate the various sources in the audio scene.