## Section: New Results

### Floating-point arithmetic

#### Improved error bounds for complex floating-point arithmetic with a fused-multiply add

Assuming that a fused multiply-add (FMA) instruction is available, C.-P. Jeannerod, N. Louvet, and J.-M. Muller [22] obtained sharp error bounds for various alternatives to Kahan's FMA-based algorithm for 2 x 2 determinants (which they had analyzed in [5] ). They showed how to combine such variants with Kahan's original scheme in order to derive componentwise-accurate algorithms for complex floating-point division. Finally, they established sharp or reasonably sharp error bounds for each of these division algorithms.

C.-P. Jeannerod, P. Kornerup (U. of Southern Denmark), N. Louvet, and J.-M. Muller [36] studied the impact of the FMA on the normwise relative accuracy of complex floating-point multiplication. They showed that the classical normwise relative error bound $\sqrt{5}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}u$ (with $u$ the unit roundoff) can be decreased further to $2u$, and that this new constant is best possible for several FMA-based multiplication algorithms.

J.-M. Muller analyzed in [41] another 2 x 2 determinant algorithm, due to Cornea, Harrison, and Tang, and showed that for radix 2 it admits a sharp relative error bound of the form $2u+O\left({u}^{2}\right)$.

#### Improved error bounds for numerical linear algebra

C.-P. Jeannerod and S. M. Rump (Hamburg University of Technology) [7] showed that when evaluating sums of $n$ real numbers in standard floating-point arithmetic, the usual fraction ${\gamma}_{n}=nu/(1-nu)$, which has the form $nu+O\left({u}^{2}\right)$ and requires $nu<1$, can be replaced by $nu$ without any restriction on $n$. Applications include simpler and more general error bounds for inner products, matrix-vector multiplication, and classical matrix multiplication.

In [45] they extended these results to LU and Cholesky factorizations as well as to triangular linear system solving by showing that the constants ${\gamma}_{n}$ that appear classically in the backward error bounds for such problems can all be replaced by $O\left({u}^{2}\right)$-free and unconditional constants $nu$. To get these new bounds the main ingredient is a general framework for bounding expressions of the form $|\rho -s|$, where $s$ is the exact sum of a floating-point number and $n-1$ real numbers, and where $\rho $ is a real number approximating the computed sum $\widehat{s}$.

#### On Ziv's rounding test

F. de Dinechin, J.-M. Muller and S. Torres studied with C. Lauter (Univ. Paris 6) the rounding test introduced by Ziv in its libultim software [4] . This test determines if an approximation to the value $f\left(x\right)$ of an elementary function at a given point $x$ suffices to return the floating-point number nearest to $f\left(x\right)$. They showed that the same test may be used for efficient implementation of floating-point operations with input and output operands of different formats. That test depends on a "magic constant" $e$ and they also showed how to choose that constant to make the test reliable and efficient. Various cases are considered, depending on the availability of an FMA instruction, and on the range of $f\left(x\right)$.

#### Various issues related to double roundings

Double rounding is a phenomenon that may occur when different floating-point precisions are available on the same system. Although double rounding is, in general, innocuous, it may change the behavior of some useful floating-point algorithms. G. Melquiond (Toccata team), E. Martin-Dorel (then in the Marelle team), and J.-M. Muller analyzed in [9] the potential influence of double rounding on the Fast2Sum and 2Sum algorithms, on some summation algorithms, and Veltkamp’s splitting. When performing divisions using Newton-Raphson (or similar) iterations on a processor with a floating-point fused multiply-add instruction, one must sometimes scale the iterations, to avoid over/underflow and/or loss of accuracy. This may lead to double-roundings, resulting in output values that may not be correctly rounded when the quotient falls in the subnormal range. J.-M. Muller showed in [13] how to avoid this problem.

#### Comparison between binary and decimal floating-point numbers

The IEEE 754-2008 standard for floating-point arithmetic arithmetic specifies binary as well as decimal formats. N. Brisebarre, C. Lauter (Univ. Paris 6), M. Mezzarobba, and J.-M. Muller introduced in [17] an algorithm that allows one to quickly compare a binary64 floating-point number and a decimal64 floating-point number, assuming the “binary encoding” of the decimal formats specified by the IEEE-754 standard is used. It is a two-step algorithm: a first pass, based on the exponents only, makes it possible to quickly eliminate most cases; then, when the first pass does not suffice, a more accurate second pass is required. They provide an implementation of several variants of their algorithm, and compare them.

#### Conversions between binary and decimal floating-point numbers

Conversion between binary and decimal floating-point representations is ubiquitous. Floating-point radix conversion means converting both the exponent and the mantissa. O. Kupriianova and C. Lauter (Univ. Paris 6) and J.-M. Muller developed in [38] an atomic operation for floating-point radix conversion with simple straight-line algorithm, suitable for hardware design. Exponent conversion is performed with a small multiplication and a lookup table. It yields the correct result without error. Mantissa conversion uses a few multiplications and a small lookup table that is shared amongst all types of conversions. The accuracy changes by adjusting the computing precision.

#### Table-maker's dilemma

Computing hardest-to-round cases of elementary functions is a key issue when one wants to develop an efficient and reliable implementation of such a function. The algorithms developed until now required a large amount of computation and produced a simple yes/no answer. In [40] , G. Hanrot developed together with E. Martin-Dorel (Toccata team), M. Mayero (IUT Villetaneuse, LIPN), and L. Théry (Marelle team) a certificate-based approach of the SLZ algorithm where the execution produces certificates which can then be validated using Coq. This allows one to validate a posteriori the fact that for a given function, a given input precision $p$ and bound ${p}^{\text{'}}$, there is no pair $(x,y)$ of floating-point representable numbers in precision $p$ such that ${2}^{-{e}_{p}\left(f\left(x\right)\right)}|f\left(x\right)-y|\le {2}^{-{p}^{\text{'}}}$. This approach has been tested on the exponential function over $[1/2,1]$, with an input precision of 53 bits and ${p}^{\text{'}}=300$.