## Section: Research Program

### Trusted computer-algebra calculations

#### Encyclopedias

Handbooks collecting mathematical properties aim at serving as reference, therefore trusted, documents. The decision of several authors or maintainers of such knowledge bases to move from paper books [17] , [19] , [61] to websites and wikis (for instance http://dlmf.nist.gov/ for special functions or http://oeis.org/ for integer sequences) allows for a more collaborative effort in proof reading. Another step toward further confidence is to manage to generate the content of an encyclopedia by computer-algebra programs, as is the case with the Wolfram Functions Site (http://functions.wolfram.com/ ) or DDMF (http://ddmf.msr-inria.inria.fr/ ). Yet, due to the lingering doubts about computer-algebra systems, some encyclopedias propose both cross-checking by different systems and handwritten companion paper proofs of their content (http://129.81.170.14/~vhm/Table.html ). As of today, there is no encyclopedia certified with formal proofs.

#### Computer algebra and symbolic logic

Several attempts have been made in order to extend existing computer-algebra systems with symbolic manipulations of logical formulas. Yet, these works are more about extending the expressivity of computer-algebra systems than about improving the standards of correctness and semantics of the systems. Conversely, several projects have addressed the communication of a proof system with a computer-algebra system, resulting in an increased automation available in the proof system, to the price of the uncertainty of the computations performed by this oracle.

#### Certifying systems for computer algebra

More ambitious projects have tried to design a new computer-algebra system providing an environment where the user could both program efficiently and elaborate formal and machine-checked proofs of correctness, by calling a general-purpose proof assistant like the Coq system. This approach requires a huge manpower and a daunting effort in order to re-implement a complete computer-algebra system, as well as the libraries of formal mathematics required by such formal proofs.

#### Semantics for computer algebra

The move to machine-checked proofs of the mathematical correctness of the output of computer-algebra implementations demands a prior clarification about the often implicit assumptions on which the presumably correctly implemented algorithms rely. Interestingly, this preliminary work, which could be considered as independent from a formal certification project, is seldom precise or even available in the literature.

#### Formal proofs for symbolic components of computer-algebra systems

A number of authors have investigated ways to organize the communication of a chosen computer-algebra system with a chosen proof assistant in order to certify specific components of the computer-algebra systems, experimenting various combinations of systems and various formats for mathematical exchanges. Another line of research consists in the implementation and certification of computer-algebra algorithms inside the logic [64] , [44] , [53] or as a proof-automation strategy. Normalization algorithms are of special interest when they allow to check results possibly obtained by an external computer-algebra oracle [37] . A discussion about the systematic separation of the search for a solution and the checking of the solution is already clearly outlined in [50] .

#### Formal proofs for numerical components of computer-algebra systems

Significant progress has been made in the certification of numerical applications by formal proofs. Libraries formalizing and implementing floating-point arithmetic as well as large numbers and arbitrary-precision arithmetic are available. These libraries are used to certify floating-point programs, implementations of mathematical functions and for applications like hybrid systems.