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Section: New Results

Electromagnetic wave propagation

Numerical study of the 1d nonlinear Maxwell equations

Participants : Loula Fézoui, Stéphane Lanteri.

The system of Maxwell equations describes the evolution of the interaction of an electromagnetic field with a propagation medium. The different properties of the medium, such as isotropy, homogeneity, linearity, among others, are introduced through constitutive laws linking fields and inductions. In the present study, we focus on nonlinear effects and address nonlinear Kerr materials specifically. In this model, any dielectric may become nonlinear provided the electric field in the material is strong enough. As a first setp, we consider the one-dimensional case and study the numerical solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations thanks to DG methods. In particular, we make use of an upwind scheme and limitation techniques because they have a proven ability to capture shocks and other kinds of singularities in the fluid dynamics framework. The numerical results obtained in this preliminary study gives us confidence towards extending this work to higher spatial dimensions.

High order geometry conforming method for nanophotonics

Participants : Stéphane Lanteri, Claire Scheid, Jonathan Viquerat.

Usually, unstructured mesh based methods rely on tessellations composed of straight-edged elements mapped linearly from a reference element, on domains which physical boundaries are indifferently straight or curved. Such meshes represent a serious hindrance for high order finite element (FE) methods since they limit the accuracy to second order in the spatial discretization. Thus, exploiting an enhanced representation of physical geometries is in agreement with the natural procedure of high order FE methods, such as the DG method. There are several ways to account for curved geometries. One could choose to incorporate the knowledge coming from CAD in the method to design the geometry and the approximation. These methods are called isogeometric, and have received a lot of attention recently. This naturally implies to have access to CAD models of the geometry. On the other hand, isoparametric usually rely on a polynomial approximation of both the boundary and the solution. This can be added fairly easily on top of existing implementations. In the present study we focus on the latter type of method, since our goal is first to envisage the benefit of curvilinear meshes for light/matter interaction with nanoscale structures.

Numerical treatment of non-local dispersion for nanoplasmonics

Participants : Stéphane Lanteri, Claire Scheid, Nikolai Schmitt, Jonathan Viquerat.

When metallic nanostructures have sub-wavelength sizes and the illuminating frequencies are in the regime of metal's plasma frequency, electron interaction with the exciting fields have to be taken into account. Due to these interactions, plasmonic surface waves can be excited and cause extreme local field enhancements (surface plasmon polariton electromagnetic waves). Exploiting such field enhancements in applications of interest requires a detailed knowledge about the occurring fields which can generally not be obtained analytically. For the numerical modeling of light/matter interaction on the nanoscale, the choice of an appropriate model is a crucial point. Approaches that are adopted in a first instance are based on local (no interaction between electrons) dispersive models e.g. Drude or Drude-Lorentz. From the mathematical point of view, these models lead to an additional ordinary differential equation in time that is coupled to Maxwell's equations. When it comes to very small structures in a regime of 2 nm to 25 nm, non-local effects due to electron collisions have to be taken into account. Non-locality leads to additional, in general non-linear, partial differential equations and is significantly more difficult to treat, though. In this work, we study a DGTD method able to solve the system of Maxwell equations coupled to a linearized non-local dispersion model relevant to nanoplasmonics. While the method is presented in the general 3d case, in this preliminary stdudy, numerical results are given for 2d simulation settings.

Multiscale DG methods for the time-domain Maxwell equations

Participants : Stéphane Lanteri, Raphaël Léger, Diego Paredes Concha [LNCC, Petropolis, Brazil] , Claire Scheid, Frédéric Valentin [LNCC, Petropolis, Brazil] .

Although the DGTD method has already been successfully applied to complex electromagnetic wave propagation problems, its accuracy may seriously deteriorate on coarse meshes when the solution presents multiscale or high contrast features. In other physical contexts, such an issue has led to the concept of multiscale basis functions as a way to overcome such a drawback and allow numerical methods to be accurate on coarse meshes. The present work, which has been initiated in the context of the visit of Frédéric Valentin in the team, is concerned with the study of a particular family of multiscale methods, named Multiscale Hybrid-Mixed (MHM) methods. Initially proposed for fluid flow problems, MHM methods are a consequence of a hybridization procedure which caracterize the unknowns as a direct sum of a coarse (global) solution and the solutions to (local) problems with Neumann boundary conditions driven by the purposely introduced hybrid (dual) variable. As a result, the MHM method becomes a strategy that naturally incorporates multiple scales while providing solutions with high order accuracy for the primal and dual variables. The completely independent local problems are embedded in the upscaling procedure, and computational approximations may be naturally obtained in a parallel computing environment. In this study, a family of MHM methods is proposed for the solution of the time-domain Maxwell equations where the local problems are discretized either with a continuous FE method or a DG method (that can be viewed as a multiscale DGTD method). Preliminary results have been obtained in the 2d case for models problems.

HDG methods for the time-domain Maxwell equations

Participants : Alexandra Christophe-Argenvillier, Stéphane Descombes, Stéphane Lanteri.

This study is concerned with the development of accurate and efficient solution strategies for the system of 3d time-domain Maxwell equations coupled to local dispersion models (e.g. Debye, Drude or Drude-Lorentz models) in the presence of locally refined meshes. Such meshes impose a constraint on the allowable time step for explicit time integration schemes that can be very restrictive for the simulation of 3d problems. We consider here the possibility of using an unconditionally stable implicit time integration scheme combined to a HDG discretization method. As a first step, we extend our former study in [20] which was dealing with the 2d time-domain Maxwell equations for non-dispersive media.

HDG methods for the frequency-domain Maxwell equations

Participants : Stéphane Lanteri, Liang Li [UESTC, Chengdu, China] , Ludovic Moya, Ronan Perrussel [Laplace Laboratory, Toulouse] .

In the context of the ANR TECSER project, we continue our efforts towards the development of scalable high order HDG methods for the solution of the system of 3d frequency-domain Maxwell equations. We aim at fully exploiting the flexibiity of the HDG discretization framework with regards to the adaptation of the interpolation order (p-adaptivity) and the mesh (h-adaptivity). In particular, we study the formulation of HDG methods on a locally refined non-conforming tetrahedral mesh and on a non-confoming hybrid cubic/tetrahedral mesh. We also investigate the coupling between the HDG formulation and a BEM (Boundary Element Method) discretization of an integral representation of the electromagnetic field in the case of propagation problems theoretically defined in unbounded domains.