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COQ (http://coq.inria.fr )

Participants : Bruno Barras [Inria Saclay] , Yves Bertot [Marelle team, Sophia] , Pierre Boutillier, Xavier Clerc [SED team] , Pierre Courtieu [CNAM] , Maxime Dénès [Gallium team, Rocquencourt] , Julien Forest [CNAM] , Stéphane Glondu [CARAMEL team, Nancy Grand Est] , Benjamin Grégoire [Marelle team, Sophia] , Vincent Gross [Consultant at NBS Systems] , Hugo Herbelin [correspondant] , Pierre Letouzey, Assia Mahboubi [SpecFun team, Saclay] , Julien Narboux [University of Strasbourg] , Jean-Marc Notin [Ecole Polytechnique] , Christine Paulin [Toccata team, Saclay] , Pierre-Marie Pédrot, Loïc Pottier [Marelle team, Sophia] , Matthias Puech, Yann Régis-Gianas, François Ripault, Matthieu Sozeau, Arnaud Spiwack [Mines Paritech] , Pierre-Yves Strub [IMDEA, Madrid] , Enrico Tassi [Marelle team, Sophia] , Benjamin Werner [Ecole Polytechnique] .

Version 8.5

Version 8.5 was expected to be released after the summer of 2014, but this got delayed until the Coq Programming Language workshop mid-January 2015.

Coq 8.5 is a major release of the Coq proof assistant, including 5 major new features:

  • Parallel development and compilation, inside files and across files, by Enrico Tassi (Inria SpecFun, then Marelle), a result of the Paral-ITP ANR project.

  • Availability of all the features of Arnaud Spiwack's new proof engine, with more expressive, clearer semantics, multigoal tactics, deep backtracking,

  • A compilation scheme from Coq to OCaml to native code by Maxime Dénès and Benjamin Grégoire (Inria Marelle, then University of Pennsylvania, then Inria Gallium), considerably improving on the previous virtual machine implementation by B. Grégoire.

  • A Universe Polymorphic extension by Matthieu Sozeau that allows universe-generic developments, as required by the Homotopy Type Theory library for example,

  • Primitive projections for records by Matthieu Sozeau, with significant efficiency improvements.

Coq 8.5 also includes many improvements at different levels: the primitive tactics, the tactic language, the specification language, the tools associated to Coq, etc. For a full list of changes, the reader is invited to look at http://coq.inria.fr or at the files CHANGES of the Coq archive.

Evaluation algorithms

The new unfolding algorithm for global constants that was proposed by Pierre Boutillier is ready for use in Coq 8.5.

Internal representation of projections

A new internal representation of record projections has been implemented in the 8.5 release by Matthieu Sozeau. During the stabilisation of this feature, we added a backwards compatibility layer that allows users to switch seamlessly to the new representation, keeping the same user-level interface for primitive and non-primitive projections (the record types and values being unchanged). This new representation adds eta-conversion of records defined with primitive projections to the definitional equality of Coq, enlarging the set of conversion problems that can be automatically handled by the system.


The new universe polymorphism system by Matthieu Sozeau is part of the 8.5 release. The implementation has been stabilised, benchmarked and tested heavily in the last year, with much input from the Homotopy Type Theory development team. In [27] , Matthieu Sozeau and Nicolas Tabareau presented the system formally. It has since been extended with user-friendly features like named universes and commands to display the status of universe constraints. With the help from Maxime Dénès (Gallium Team), the native compilation system has also been extended to fully support universe polymorphism.

Internal architecture of the Coq software

Pierre Letouzey, Pierre-Marie Pédrot and Xavier Clerc have continued to work at improving the quality of the OCaml code which composes Coq :

  • Many modules have been revised, in particular with cleaner naming conventions.

  • Almost all uses of the generic OCaml comparison have been chased and transformed into specific code, thereby avoiding many potential bugs with advanced structures, while improving performances at the same time.

  • The codes handling OCaml exceptions have been reworked to avoid undue interceptions of critical exceptions.

  • Issues involving exceptions are now quite simpler to debug, thanks to easy-to-obtain backtraces.


Pierre-Marie Pédrot has been working on the overall optimisation of Coq, by tracking hotspots in the code. Coq trunk is currently much more efficient than its v8.4 counterpart, and is about as quick as v8.3, while having been expanded with a lot of additional features.

Documentation generation

Yann Régis-Gianas continued the development of a new version of coqdoc, the documentation generator of Coq. This new implementation is based on the interaction protocol with the Coq system and should be more robust with respect to the evolution of Coq.

Maintenance and coordination

The maintenance and coordination of Coq has been jointly done by Hugo Herbelin, Pierre Boutillier, Pierre Letouzey, Matthieu Sozeau, Pierre-Marie Pédrot, in relation with the other participants to the development.

A Coq working group is organised every two months (5 times a year). From the end of October, a Coq lunch holds weekly welcoming any person interested in the development of Coq in general. Discussions about the development happen, in particular, on coq-dev@inria.fr and http://coq.inria.fr/bugs .

The Coq extraction

In 2014, Pierre Letouzey built an extension of the Coq extraction that targets directly one of the internal layers of the OCaml compiler. This way, it is possible to avoid the generation of OCaml concrete syntax by the extraction, followed by a parsing phase when the OCaml compiler is launched on the extracted code. Our extension is able to shortcut these two phases. The interest is twofold. First, it seriously reduces the amount of code that should be considered as critical during a program development via extraction. Secondly, with this approach we are able to directly compile and run certain extracted examples, and internalise the result back into Coq, leading to a new promising command Extraction Compute. This extension is currently quite experimental.

Parametricity for the Coq proof assistant

During his stay in the πr2 team, Marc Lasson developed a plugin for parametricity theory in the Coq proof assistant.

Parametricity theory was originally introduced by John Reynolds in his seminal paper about polymorphic λ-calculus (also known as System F). It is used to formalise the opacity of abstract datatypes in programming languages that provide idioms to handle types generically. Polymorphic functions cannot inspect their arguments with an abstract type, and have to use them uniformly. The main tool of parametricity theory is that of logical relations, which are relations between programs of the same type that are defined by induction on the structure of types.

Marc Lasson's work consisted in developing a parametricity theory for the terms of Coq. The result of this work is a new plugin for the proof assistant that computes logical relations as well as the proof witnesses that programs satisfy these logical relations. It is available on github http://github.com/mlasson/paramcoq .

The purpose of this plugin is to allow to use parametric arguments in Coq proofs, the main direct application is the certification of parametric programs. Thanks to powerful expressiveness of the proof assistant, this plugin will allow future users to use parametric arguments to a larger scale. Although parametricity theory was originally developed for studying programs, the fact that we can use it in a proof assistant enables new uses in other contexts, such as the formalisation of mathematics and the meta-theory of proof assistants).

In [24] , Marc Lasson showed that parametricity may also be useful to derive properties about the groupoidal interpretation of Type Theory. It was known that the equality types (also known as identity types) of type theory carry the algebraic structure of ω-groupoids (which is a higher-dimensional version of groups). Parametricity theory allows us to prove that the terms witnessing these algebraic laws are canonical, in the sense that there is only one way to implement them (up to higher-order equalities).

Formalisation in Coq

Hugo Herbelin's type-theoretic construction of semi-simplicial sets [9] has been formalised in Coq.

Matthieu Sozeau and Nicolas Tabareau formalised a setoid model of type theory in Coq http://github.com/mattam82/groupoid . They are working on extending this work to the groupoid model using the latest tools available in Coq 8.5.

Frédéric Loulergue collaborates with Frédéric Dabrowski and Thomas Pinsard (Univ. Orléans) to verify in Coq the compilation pass [21] for a language with nested atomic sections and thread escape to a language with only threads and locks, building on [45] .

Systematic development of programs for parallel and cloud computing

During his stay in the πr2 team, Frédéric Loulergue continues to collaborate with Kento Emoto (Kyushu Institute of Technology), Zhenjiang Hu (National Institute for Informatics, Japan), Julien Tesson (Univ. Paris-Est Créteil), Wadoud Bousdira (Univ. Orléans), Kiminori Matsuzaki (Kochi University of Technology) and Vitor Rodrigues (Rochester Institute of Technology) to develop the SyDPaCC framework (http://traclifo.univ-orleans.fr/SyDPaCC ).

The goal of this framework is to ease the systematic development of correct parallel programs, in particular large scale data-intensive applications. In Coq, users write inefficient (sequential) functional programs and through (partly automated) program transformations based on the theory of list homomorphisms [32] , bulk synchronous parallel homomorphisms [59] and semi-ring homomorphisms [48] , an efficient sequential version is obtained. This version can then be automatically parallelised thanks to type class instance resolution and instances relating specific functions to their parallel counterparts. The parallel versions of the programs are written with a Coq axiomatisation of Bulk Synchronous Parallel ML (BSML) primitives. To obtain the final code, these Coq programs are extracted towards OCaml with calls to a parallel implementation of the BSML library.

As the SyDPaCC framework currently mixes certified code extracted from Coq and unverified code, Frédéric Loulergue and Pierre Letouzey are working on an extended extraction that generates, when possible, OCaml asserts for preconditions on function arguments. The next version of the generate-test-aggregate library of SyDPaCC will use Marc Lasson's plugin for parametricity to prove a “theorem for free”: currently only instantiations of this theorem for each provided generator are proved.

Proofs of algorithms on graphs

Jean-Jacques Lévy's current research is to review basic algorithms and make their formal proofs of correctness in Why3 + Coq. Filliâtre and Pottier already started this research, but we plan to focus on graph algorithms, with concerns on the feasability of these formal proofs and on the design of good libraries on top of Coq or Ssreflect. The goal is not to disprove these algorithms which are most probably correct, but to develop a theory of tools for proving algorithms with proof assistants and provers. Standard techniques use assertions in Hoare logic or TLA or any other logic, which are written on paper. With the recent development of good computer proof-assistants and the fantastic progress of SMT provers, the goal of providing algorithms with their correctness proofs checked by computer seems possible. The plan of this research is to use Why3, Coq, Ssreflect on standard computing systems, and also to motivate a few students to work on this project. The challenge would be to compete with Filliâtre, Pottier and Monate’s group at CEA (France), or Fournet, Swamy and Pierce at Microsoft Research or Univ. of Pennsylvania. We want to demonstrate that the use of SMT provers can be well coupled with the one of interactive provers as already done in Why3 and in F* with refined types in probable future. The expected outcome would be to extend to larger programs and real software. But this seems quite ambitious at present time, since large scale needs more technology as showed by Gonthier for his long proofs of mathematical theorems, and since the world of programming is much less structured than the world of mathematics.

We completed proofs of the following major algorithms as exposed in Sedgewick's book: sorting, searching, depth-first search in graphs. This work is performed in collaboration with Chen Ran at Iscas (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences). Proofs can be found at http://jeanjacqueslevy.net/why3 (see also [10] ).