## Section: New Results

### Algebraic computing and high performance kernels

#### Complexity of the F5 Gröbner basis algorithm

We study the complexity of Gröbner bases computation, in particular in the generic situation where the variables are in simultaneous Noether position with respect to the system. We give a bound on the number of polynomials of degree $d$ in a Gröbner basis computed by Faugère's F5 algorithm (2002) in this generic case for the grevlex ordering (which is also a bound on the number of polynomials for a reduced Gröbner basis, independently of the algorithm used). Next, we analyse more precisely the structure of the polynomials in the Gröbner bases with signatures that F5 computes and use it to bound the complexity of the algorithm. Our estimates show that the version of F5 we analyse, which uses only standard Gaussian elimination techniques, outperforms row reduction of the Macaulay matrix with the best known algorithms for moderate degrees, and even for degrees up to the thousands if Strassen's multiplication is used. The degree being fixed, the factor of improvement grows exponentially with the number of variables. [1]

#### Faster Algorithms for Multivariate Interpolation with Multiplicities and Simultaneous Polynomial Approximations

The interpolation step in the Guruswami-Sudan algorithm is a bivariate interpolation problem with multiplicities commonly solved in the literature using either structured linear algebra or basis reduction of polynomial lattices. This problem has been extended to three or more variables; for this generalization, all fast algorithms proposed so far rely on the lattice approach. In this work, we reduce this multivariate interpolation problem to a problem of simultaneous polynomial approximations, which we solve using fast structured linear algebra. This improves the best known complexity bounds for the interpolation step of the list-decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, Parvaresh-Vardy codes, and folded Reed-Solomon codes. In particular, for Reed-Solomon list-decoding with re-encoding, our approach has complexity $\tilde{O}\left({\ell}^{\omega -1}{m}^{2}\left(n-k\right)\right)$, where $\ell ,m,n,k$ are the list size, the multiplicity, the number of sample points and the dimension of the code, and ω is the exponent of linear algebra; this accelerates the previously fastest known algorithm by a factor of $\ell /m$. [3]

#### Recursion based parallelization of exact dense linear algebra routines for Gaussian elimination

We present block algorithms and their implementation for the parallelization of sub-cubic Gaussian elimination on shared memory architectures. Contrarily to the classical cubic algorithms in parallel numerical linear algebra, we focus here on recursive algorithms and coarse grain parallelization. Indeed, sub-cubic matrix arithmetic can only be achieved through recursive algorithms making coarse grain block algorithms perform more efficiently than fine grain ones. This work is motivated by the design and implementation of dense linear algebra over a finite field, where fast matrix multiplication is used extensively and where costly modular reductions also advocate for coarse grain block decomposition. We incrementally build efficient kernels, for matrix multiplication first, then triangular system solving, on top of which a recursive PLUQ decomposition algorithm is built. We study the parallelization of these kernels using several algorithmic variants: either iterative or recursive and using different splitting strategies. Experiments show that recursive adaptive methods for matrix multiplication, hybrid recursive-iterative methods for triangular system solve and tile recursive versions of the PLUQ decomposition, together with various data mapping policies, provide the best performance on a 32 cores NUMA architecture. Overall, we show that the overhead of modular reductions is more than compensated by the fast linear algebra algorithms and that exact dense linear algebra matches the performance of full rank reference numerical software even in the presence of rank deficiencies. [4]

#### Computing the Rank Profile Matrix

The row (resp. column) rank profile of a matrix describes the staircase shape of its row (resp. column) echelon form. In an ISSAC'13 paper, we proposed a recursive Gaussian elimination that can compute simultaneously the row and column rank profiles of a matrix as well as those of all of its leading sub-matrices, in the same time as state of the art Gaussian elimination algorithms. Here we first study the conditions making a Gaus-sian elimination algorithm reveal this information. Therefore, we propose the definition of a new matrix invariant, the rank profile matrix, summarizing all information on the row and column rank profiles of all the leading sub-matrices. We also explore the conditions for a Gaussian elimination algorithm to compute all or part of this invariant, through the corresponding PLUQ decomposition. As a consequence, we show that the classical iterative CUP decomposition algorithm can actually be adapted to compute the rank profile matrix. Used, in a Crout variant, as a base-case to our ISSAC'13 implementation, it delivers a significant improvement in efficiency. Second, the row (resp. column) echelon form of a matrix are usually computed via different dedicated triangular decompositions. We show here that, from some PLUQ decompositions, it is possible to recover the row and column echelon forms of a matrix and of any of its leading sub-matrices thanks to an elementary post-processing algorithm. [16]

#### Formulas for Continued Fractions. An Automated Guess and Prove Approach

We describe a simple method that produces automatically closed forms for the coefficients of continued fractions expansions of a large number of special functions. The function is specified by a non-linear differential equation and initial conditions. This is used to generate the first few coefficients and from there a conjectured formula. This formula is then proved automatically thanks to a linear recurrence satisfied by some remainder terms. Extensive experiments show that this simple approach and its straightforward generalization to difference and $q$-difference equations capture a large part of the formulas in the literature on continued fractions. [20]

#### Algebraic Diagonals and Walks

The diagonal of a multivariate power series $F$ is the univariate power series $DiagF$ generated by the diagonal terms of $F$. Diagonals form an important class of power series; they occur frequently in number theory, theoretical physics and enumerative combinatorics. We study algorithmic questions related to diagonals in the case where $F$ is the Taylor expansion of a bivariate rational function. It is classical that in this case $DiagF$ is an algebraic function. We propose an algorithm that computes an annihilating polynomial for $DiagF$ . Generically, it is its minimal polynomial and is obtained in time quasi-linear in its size. We show that this minimal polynomial has an exponential size with respect to the degree of the input rational function. We then address the related problem of enumerating directed lattice walks. The insight given by our study leads to a new method for expanding the generating power series of bridges, excursions and meanders. We show that their first $N$ terms can be computed in quasi-linear complexity in N, without first computing a very large polynomial equation. [12]