Section: New Results
Participants : Yoann Couillec, Vincent Prunet, Manuel Serrano [correspondant] .
Multitier programming languages unify within a single formalism and a single execution environment the programming of the different tiers of distributed applications. On the Web, this programming paradigm unifies the client tier, the server tier, and, when one is used, the database tier. This homogenization offers several advantages over traditional Web programming that rely on different languages and different environments for the two or three tiers of the Web application: programmers have only one language to learn, maintenance and evolution are simplified by the use of a single formalism, global static analyses are doable as a single semantics is involved, debugging and other runtime tools are more powerful as they access global informations about the execution.
The three first multitier platforms for the Web all appeared in 2006: GWT (a.k.a., Google Web Toolkit), Links, and Hop  ,  . Each relied on a different programming model and languages. GWT maps the Java programming model on the Web, as it allows, Java/Swing likes programs to be compiled and executed on the Web; Links is functional language with experimental features such as the storing of the whole execution context on the client; Hop is based on the Scheme programming language. These three pioneers have open the path for the other multitier languages such as, Ocsigen for Ocaml, UrWeb, js-scala, etc.