Section: Application Domains

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a reality with the emergence of Smart Cities, populated with large amounts of smart objects which are used to deliver a range of citizen services (e.g., security, well being, etc.) The IoT paradigm relies on the pervasive presence of smart objects or “things”, which raises a number of new challenges in the software engineering domain.

We introduce a design-driven development approach that is dedicated to the domain of orchestration of masses of sensors. The developer declares what an application does using a domain-specific language (DSL), named DiaSwarm. Our compiler processes domain-specific declarations to generate a customized programming framework that guides and supports the programming phase.

DiaSwarm addresses the main phases of an application orchestrating masses of sensors.

Service discovery. Standard service discovery at the individual object level does not address the needs of applications orchestrating large numbers of smart objects. Instead, a high-level approach which provides constructs to specifying subsets of interest is needed. Our approach allows developers to introduce application-specific concepts (e.g., regrouping parking spaces into lots or districts) at the design time and then these can be used to express discovery operations. Following our design-driven development approach, these concepts are used to generate code to support and guide the programming phase.

Data gathering. Applications need to acquire data from a large number of objects through a variety of delivery models. For instance, air pollution sensors across a city may only push data to the relevant applications when pollution levels exceed tolerated levels. Tracking sensors, however, might determine the location of vehicles and send the acquired measurements to applications periodically (e.g., 10 min. intervals). Data delivery models need to be introduced at design time since they have a direct impact on the application’s program structure. In doing so, the delivery models used by an application can be checked against sensor features early in the development process.

Data processing. Data that is generated from hundreds of thousands of objects and accumulated over a period of time calls for efficient processing strategies to ensure the required performance is attained. Our approach allows for an efficient implementation of the data processing stage by providing the developer with a framework based on the MapReduce [34] programming model which is intended for the processing of large data sets.