## Section: New Results

### Wave propagation in complex media

#### Perfectly Matched Layers in plasmas and metamaterials

Participants : Eliane Bécache, Maryna Kachanovska.

In this work we consider the problem of the modelling of 2D anisotropic dispersive wave propagation in unbounded domains with the help of perfectly matched layers (PML). We study the Maxwell equations in passive media with the frequency-dependent diagonal tensor of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. An application of the traditional PMLs to this kind of problems often results in instabilities, due to the presence of so-called backward propagating waves. In previous works, this instability was overcome with the help of the frequency-dependent correction of the PML, for isotropic dispersive models.

We show that this idea can be extended to a more general class of models (uniaxial cold plasma, some anisotropic metamaterials). Crucially, we base our considerations on the Laplace-domain techniques. This allows to avoid the analysis of the group and phase velocity (used before) but study (rather formally) coercivity properties of the sesquilinear form corresponding to the PML model in the Laplace domain. The advantage of this method is that it permits to treat problems with dissipation, and provides an intuition on how to obtain explicit energy estimates for the resulting PML models in the time domain. However, such analysis does not allow to obtain easily the necessary stability condition of the PML. We demonstrate that the necessary stability conditions of the PML can be rewritten for a class of models in a form that is easy to verify, and demonstrate that these conditions are sufficient for the stability of the new PMLs with the help of the Laplace-domain techniques. Thanks to the Laplace domain analysis, we are able to rewrite a PML system in the time domain in a form, for which the derivation of energy estimates is simplified (compared to other formulations).

#### Transparent Boundary Conditions for the Wave Propagation in Fractal Trees

Participants : Patrick Joly, Maryna Kachanovska.

This work, done in collaboration with Adrien Semin (Postdoctoral student at the Technische Universität of Berlin), is dedicated to an efficient resolution of the wave equation in self-similar trees (e.g. wave propagation in a human lung). In this case it is possible to avoid computing the solution at deeper levels of the tree by using the transparent boundary conditions. The corresponding DtN operator is defined by a functional equation in the frequency domain. In this work we propose and compare two approaches to the discretization of this operator in the time domain. The first one is based on the multistep convolution quadrature, while the second one stems from the rational approximations.

#### High order transmission conditions between homogeneous and homogenized periodic half-spaces

Participants : Sonia Fliss, Valentin Vinoles.

This work is a part of the PhD of Valentin Vinoles, and is done in collaboration with Xavier Claeys from Paris 6 University and EPI ALPINE. It is motivated by the fact that classical homogenization theory poorly takes into account interfaces, which is particularly unfortunate when considering negative materials, because important phenomena arise precisely at their surface (plasmonic waves for instance). To overcome this limitation, we want to construct high order transmission conditions. For now, we have treated the case of a plane interface between a homogeneous and a periodic half spaces. Using matched asymptotic techniques, we have derived high order transmission conditions. We have then introduced an approximate model associated to this asymptotic expansions which consists in replacing the periodic media by an effective one but the transmission conditions are not classical. The obtained conditions involve Laplace- Beltrami operators at the interface and requires to solve cell problems in periodicity cell (as in classical homogenisation) and in infinite strips (to take into account the phenomena near the interface). We establish well posedness for the approximate and error estimate which justify that this new model is more accurate near the interface and in the bulk. From a numerical point of view, the only difficulty comes from the problems set in infinite strips (one half is homogeneous and the other is periodic). This is overcome using DtN operators corresponding to the homogeneous and the periodic media.The numerical results confirm the theoretical ones.

#### Finite Element Heterogeneous Multiscale Method for Maxwell’s Equations

Participants : Patrick Ciarlet, Sonia Fliss.

This work is done in collaboration with Christian Stohrer (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Allemagne). In recent years, the Finite Element Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (FE-HMM) has been used to approximate the effective behavior of solutions to PDEs in highly oscillatory media. We started on the extension of the FE-HMM to the Helmholtz equation in such media, and recently we solved the time-harmonic Maxwell equations case. Using a combination of results regarding the FE-HMM and the notion of T-coercivity applied to Maxwell's equations, we derive an a priori error bound and the error. Moreover, numerical experiments corroborate the analytical findings, cf. [PC,SF,CS'1x].