## Section: New Results

### Tropical algebra and convex geometry

#### Formalizing convex polyhedra in Coq

Participants : Xavier Allamigeon, Ricardo Katz [Conicet, Argentine] .

We formalize a certain fragment of the theory of convex polyhedra and their combinatorial properties. Our motivation is that convex polyhedra are involved in a wide range of analysis techniques such as in formal verification, and that their combinatorial properties are used to establish more fundamental results, especially in tropical geometry.

This formalization has been conducted in Coq using the Mathematical Components library. We have implemented a full formalization of the simplex algorithm, which allows to make several key properties of convex polyhedra (feasibility, unboundedness, etc) decidable. From this, we have deduced a formal proof of strong duality theorem in linear programming, and of Farkas lemma. We also have a formal implementation of Motzkin's double description method, which provides a constructive way to prove Minkowski theorem for polyhedra.

#### Tropical totally positive matrices

Participants : Stéphane Gaubert, Adi Niv.

In [50], we investigate the tropical analogues of totally positive and totally non-negative matrices, i.e, the images by the valuation of the corresponding classes of matrices over a non-archimedean field. We show that tropical totally positive matrices essentially coincide with the Monge matrices (defined by the positivity of $2\times 2$ tropical minors), arising in optimal transport. These results have been presented in [41], [40].

#### Tropical compound matrix identities

Participants : Marianne Akian, Stéphane Gaubert, Adi Niv.

In [55], [57], we proved some identities on matrices using a weak and a strong transfer principles. In the present work, we prove identities on compound matrices in extended tropical semirings. Such identities include analogues to properties of conjugate matrices, powers of matrices and $adj\left(A\right)det{\left(A\right)}^{-1}$, all of which have implications on the eigenvalues of the corresponding matrices. A tropical Sylvester-Franke identity is provided as well. Even though part of these identities hold over any commutative ring, they cannot be adjusted to semirings with symmetry using the existing weak and strong transfer principles. Here, we provide the proofs by means of graph theory arguments.

#### Supertropical algebra

Participant : Adi Niv.

Several properties of matrices over the tropical algebra are studied using the supertropical algebra introduced in [92].

The only invertible matrices in tropical algebra are diagonal matrices, permutation matrices and their products. However, the pseudo-inverse ${A}^{\nabla}$, defined as $\frac{1}{det\left(A\right)}adj\left(A\right)$, with $det\left(A\right)$ being the tropical permanent, inherits some classical algebraic properties and has some surprising new ones. In [104], defining $B$ and ${B}^{\text{'}}$ to be tropically similar if ${B}^{\text{'}}={A}^{\nabla}BA$, we examine the characteristic (max-)polynomials of tropically similar matrices as well as those of pseudo-inverses. Other miscellaneous results include a new proof of the identity for $det\left(AB\right)$ and a connection to stabilization of the powers of definite matrices.

In a joint work with Louis Rowen (Bar Ilan Univ.) [21], we study the pathology that causes tropical eigenspaces of distinct supertropical eigenvalues of a non-singular matrix $A$, to be dependent. We show that in lower dimensions the eigenvectors of distinct eigenvalues are independent, as desired. The index set that differentiates between subsequent essential monomials of the characteristic polynomial, yields an eigenvalue $\lambda $, and corresponds to the columns of the eigenmatrix $A+\lambda I$ from which the eigenvectors are taken. We ascertain the cause for failure in higher dimensions, and prove that independence of the eigenvectors is recovered in case the “difference criterion” holds, defined in terms of disjoint differences between index sets of subsequent coefficients. We conclude by considering the eigenvectors of the matrix ${A}^{\nabla}:=\frac{1}{det\left(A\right)}adj\left(A\right)$ and the connection of the independence question to generalized eigenvectors.

#### Volume and integer points of tropical polytopes

Participants : Marie Maccaig, Stéphane Gaubert.

We investigated the volume of tropical polytopes, as well as the number of integer points contained in integer polytopes. We proved that even approximating these values for a tropical polytope given by its vertices is hard, with no approximation algorithm with factor ${2}^{\text{poly}(m,n)}$ existing. We further proved the ♯P-hardness for the analogous problems for tropical polytopes instead defined by inequalities. We also investigated the relation between the set of integer points of a tropical polytope and the image by the valuation of polytopes over the nonarchimedean field of Puiseux series.

#### Primal dual pair of max-algebraic integer linear programs (MLP)

Participant : Marie Maccaig.

There are known weak and strong duality theorems for max-algebraic linear programs. I investigated the integer versions of these problems; considering the impact of requiring integer solutions instead of real solutions. I proved a tight bound on the duality gap for a pair of integer solutions to the primal and dual MLPs, and searched for conditions on when the optimal values of the integer primal and dual MLPs coincide.

#### Tropical Jacobi identity

Participants : Marie Maccaig, Adi Niv.

In a joint work with Sergei Sergeev (Birmingham), we investigated the combinatorial interpretation for the Tropical Jacobi identity. Inspired by Butkovic's paper, "Max-algebra, the algebra of combinatorics?" and many other links between max-algebra and combinatorics, we try to link this tropical quantity to a new type of multiple assignment problem.