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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: New Results

Performance Evaluation, Security, Safety and Verification

Participants : Antoine Gallais, Nathalie Mitton, Allan Blanchard.

Performance Evaluation and validation methodology

Envisioned communication densities in Internet of Things applications are increasing continuously. Because these wireless devices are often battery powered, we need specific energy efficient (low-power) solutions. Moreover, these smart objects use low-cost hardware with possibly weak links, leading to a lossy network. Once deployed, these low-power lossy networks (LLNs) are intended to collect the expected measurements, handle transient faults, topology changes, etc. Consequently, validation and verification during the protocol development are a matter of prime importance. A large range of theoretical or practical tools are available for performance evaluation. A theoretical analysis may demonstrate that the performance guarantees are respected, while simulations or experiments aim on estimating the behavior of a set of protocols within real-world scenarios. In [16], we review the various parameters that should be taken into account during such a performance evaluation. Our primary purpose is to provide a tutorial that specifies guidelines for conducting performance evaluation campaigns of network protocols in LLNs. We detail the general approach adopted in order to evaluate the performance of layer 2 and 3 protocols in LLNs. Furthermore, we also specify the methodology that should be adopted during the performance evaluation, while reviewing the numerous models and tools that are available to the research community.

Correlated failures

Current practices of fault-tolerant network design ignore the fact that most network infrastructure faults are localized or spatially correlated (i.e., confined to geo-graphic regions). Network operators require new tools to mitigate the impact of such region-based faults on their infrastructures. Utilizing the support from the U.S. Department of Defense, and by consolidating a wide range of theories and solutions developed in the last few years, [14] designs RAPTOR, an advanced Network Planning and Management Tool that facilitates the design and provisioning of robust and resilient networks.The tool provides multi-faceted network design, evaluation, and simulation capabilities for network planners. Future extensions of the tool currently being worked upon not only expand the tool’s capabilities, but also extend these capabilities to heterogeneous interdependent networks such as communication, power, water, and satellite networks.

Contiki verification

Internet of Things (IoT) applications are becoming increasingly critical and require formal verification. Our recent work presented formal verification of the linked list module of Contiki, an OS for IoT. It relies on a parallel view of a linked list via a companion ghost array and uses an inductive predicate to link both views. In this work, a few interactively proved lemmas allow for the automatic verification of the list functions specifications, expressed in the acsl specification language and proved with the Frama-C/Wp tool. In a broader verification context, especially as long as the whole system is not yet formally verified, it would be very useful to use runtime verification , in particular, to test client modules that use the list module. It is not possible with the current specifications, which include an inductive predicate and axiomatically defined functions. In [27], an early-idea paper we show how to define a provably equivalent non-inductive predicate and a provably equivalent non-axiomatic function that belong to the executable subset e-acsl of acsl and can be transformed into executable C code. Finally, we propose an extension of Frama-C to handle both axiomatic specifications for deductive verification and executable specifications for runtime verification.

In [23], [47], we target Contiki, a widely used open-source OS for IoT, and present a verification case study of one of its most critical modules: that of linked lists. Its API and list representation differ from the classical linked list implementations, and are particularly challenging for deductive verification. The proposed verification technique relies on a parallel view of a list through a companion ghost array. This approach makes it possible to perform most proofs automatically using the Frama-C/WP tool, only a small number of auxiliary lemmas being proved interactively in the Coq proof assistant. We present an elegant segment-based reasoning over the companion array developed for the proof. Finally, we validate the proposed specification by proving a few functions manipulating lists.

With the wide expansion of multiprocessor architectures, the analysis and reasoning for programs under weak memory models has become an important concern. [13] presents MMFilter, an original constraint solver for generating program behaviors respecting a particular memory model. It is implemented in Prolog using CHR (Constraint Handling Rules). The CHR formalism provides a convenient generic solution for specifying memory models. It benefits from the existing optimized implementations of CHR and can be easily extended to new models. We present MMFilter design, illustrate the encoding of memory model constraints in CHR and discuss the benefits and limitations of the proposed technique.