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Section: Research Program

Linking Graphs

When datasets from independent sources are not linked with existing schema mappings, we would like to investigate symbolic machine learning solutions for inferring such mappings in order to define meaningful links between data from separate sources. This problem can be studied for various kinds of linked data collections. Before presenting the precise objectives, we will illustrate our approach on the example of linking data in two independent graphs: an address book of a research institute containing detailed personnel information and a (global) bibliographic database containing information on papers and their authors.

We remind that a schema allows to identify a collection of types each grouping objects from the same semantic class e.g., the collection of all persons in the address book and the collection of all authors in the bibliography database. As a schema is often lacking or underspecified in graph data models, we intend to investigate inference methods based on structural similarity of graph fragments used to describe objects from the same class in a given document e.g., in the bibliographic database every author has a name and a number of affiliations, while a paper has a title and a number of authors. Furthermore, our inference methods will attempt to identify, for every type, a set of possible keys, where by key we understand a collection of attributes of an object that uniquely identifies such an object in its semantic class. For instance, for a person in the address book two examples of a key are the name of the person and the office phone number of that person.

In the next step, we plan to investigate employing existing entity linkage solutions to identify pairs of types from different databases whose instances should be linked using compatible keys. For instance, persons in the address book should be linked with authors in the bibliographical database using the name as the compatible key. Linking the same objects (represented in different ways) in two databases can be viewed as an instance of a mapping between the two databases. Such mapping is, however, discriminatory because it typically maps objects from a specific subset of objects of given types. For instance, the mapping implied by linking persons in the address book with authors in the bibliographic database involves in fact researchers, a subgroup of personnel of the research institute, and authors affiliated with the research institute. Naturally, a subset of objects of a given type, or a subtype, can be viewed as a result of a query on the set of all objects, which on very basic level illustrates how learning data mappings can be reduced to learning queries.

While basic mappings link objects of the same type, more general mappings define how the same type of information is represented in two different databases. For instance, the email address and the postal address of an individual may be represented in one way in the address book and in another way in the bibliographic databases, and naturally, the query asking for the email address and the postal address of a person identified by a given name will differ from one database to the other. While queries used in the context of linking objects of compatible types are essentially unary, queries used in the context of linking information are n-ary and we plan to approach inference of general database mappings by investigating and employing algorithms for inference of n-ary queries.

An important goal in this research is elaborating a formal definition of learnability (feasibility of inference) of a given class of concepts (schemas of queries). We plan to following the example of Gold (1967), which requires not only the existence of an efficient algorithm that infers concepts consistent with the given input but the ability to infer every concept from the given class with a sufficiently informative input. Naturally, learnability depends on two parameters. The first parameter is the class of concepts i.e., a class of schema and a class of queries, from which the goal concept is to be inferred. The second parameter is the type of input that an inference algorithm is given. This can be a set of examples of a concept e.g., instances of rdf databases for which we wish to construct a schema or a selection of nodes that a goal query is to select. Alternatively, a more general interactive scenario can be used where the learning algorithm inquires the user about the goal concept e.g., by asking to indicate whether a given node is to be selected or not (as membership queries of Angluin (1987)). In general, the richer the input is, the richer class of concepts can be handled, however, the richer class of queries is to be handled, the higher computational cost is to be expected. The primary task is to find a good compromise and identify classes of concepts that are of high practical value, allow efficient inference with possibly simple type of input.

The main open problem for graph-shaped data studied by Links are how to infer queries, schemas, and schema-mappings for graph-structured data.