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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: New Results

Numerical Methods

Numerical analysis for an energy-preserving total discretization of a poromechanics model with inf-sup stability

Participants : Dominique Chapelle [correspondant] , Philippe Moireau.

We consider a previously proposed general nonlinear poromechanical formulation, and we derive a linearized version of this model. For this linearized model, we obtain an existence result and we propose a complete discretization strategy – in time and space – with a special concern for issues associated with incompressible or nearly-incompressible behavior. We provide a detailed mathematical analysis of this strategy, the main result being an error estimate uniform with respect to the compressibility parameter. We then illustrate our approach with detailed simulation results and we numerically investigate the importance of the assumptions made in the analysis, including the fulfillment of specific inf-sup conditions. This work is accepted for publication in Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica.

Efficient estimation of personalized biventricular mechanical function employing gradient-based optimization[21]

Participant : Martin Genet [correspondant] .

Individually personalized computational models of heart mechanics can be used to estimate important physiological and clinically-relevant quantities that are difficult, if not impossible, to directly measure in the beating heart. Here, we present a novel and efficient framework for creating patient-specific biventricular models using a gradient-based data assimilation method for evaluating regional myocardial contractility and estimating myofiber stress. These simulations can be performed on a regular laptop in less than 2 hours and produce excellent fit between measured and simulated volume and strain data through the entire cardiac cycle. By applying the framework using data obtained from 3 healthy human biventricles, we extracted clinically important quantities as well as explored the role of fiber angles on heart function. Our results show that steep fiber angles at the endocardium and epicardium are required to produce simulated motion compatible with measured strain and volume data. We also find that the contraction and subsequent systolic stresses in the right ventricle are significantly lower than that in the left ventricle. Variability of the estimated quantities with respect to both patient data and modeling choices are also found to be low. Because of its high efficiency, this framework may be applicable to modeling of patient specific cardiac mechanics for diagnostic purposes.

Equilibrated warping: Finite element image registration with finite strain equilibrium gap regularization[22]

Participant : Martin Genet [correspondant] .

In this work, we propose a novel continuum finite strain formulation of the equilibrium gap regularization for image registration. The equilibrium gap regularization essentially penalizes any deviation from the solution of a hyperelastic body in equilibrium with arbitrary loads prescribed at the boundary. It thus represents a regularization with strong mechanical basis, especially suited for cardiac image analysis. We describe the consistent linearization and discretization of the regularized image registration problem, in the framework of the finite elements method. The method is implemented using FEniCS & VTK, and distributed as a freely available python library. We show that the equilibrated warping method is effective and robust: regularization strength and image noise have minimal impact on motion tracking, especially when compared to strain-based regularization methods such as hyperelastic warping. We also show that equilibrated warping is able to extract main deformation features on both tagged and untagged cardiac magnetic resonance images.

Thermodynamic properties of muscle contraction models and associated discrete-time principles

Participants : François Kimmig [correspondant] , Dominique Chapelle, Philippe Moireau.

Considering a large class of muscle contraction models accounting for actin-myosin interaction, we present a mathematical setting in which solution properties can be established, including fundamental thermodynamic balances. Moreover, we propose a complete discretization strategy for which we are also able to obtain discrete versions of the thermodynamic balances and other properties. Our major objective is to show how the thermodynamics of such models can be tracked after discretization, including when they are coupled to a macroscopic muscle formulation in the realm of continuum mechanics. Our approach allows to carefully identify the sources of energy and entropy in the system, and to follow them up to the numerical applications.

A conservative penalisation strategy for the semi-implicit time discretisation of the incompressible elastodynamics equation

Participants : Federica Caforio [correspondant] , Sébastien Imperiale.

The principal aim of this work is to provide an adapted numerical scheme for the approximation of elastic wave propagation in incompressible solids. We rely on high-order conforming finite element with mass lumping for space discretisation and implicit/explicit, second-order, energy-preserving time discretisation. The time step restriction only depends on the shear wave velocity and at each time step a Poisson problem must be solved to account for the incompressibility constraint that is imposed by penalisation techniques.

High-order discrete Fourier transform for the solution of the poisson equation

Participants : Federica Caforio [correspondant] , Sébastien Imperiale.

The aim of this work is to propose a novel, fast, matrix-free solver for the Poisson problem discretised with High-Order Spectral Element Methods (HO-SEM). This method is based on the use of the Discrete Fourier Transform to reduce the problem to the inversion of the symbol of the operator in frequency space. The solver proposed is endowed with several properties. First, it preserves the efficiency of standard FFT algorithm; then, the matrix storage is minimised; a pseudo- explicit Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is used for the inversion of the symbols; finally, it can be easily extended to multiple dimensions and non-periodic boundary conditions. In particular, due to the underlying HO-SEM discretisation, the multi-dimensional symbol of the operator can be efficiently computed from the one-dimensional symbol by tensorisation.