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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: New Results

Experimental Assessments

Mathematical modeling and experimental validation of flow through aortic valve

Participant : Radomir Chabiniok [correspondant] .

Assessment of the valvular diseases by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has known limits due to limited spatial-temporal resolution of MRI and artifacts intrinsic to the method. This problem is addressed by the collaborative work of the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague (IKEM, participants J. Tintera and R. Galabov) and the mathematical modeling group at the Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU, participants P. Paus, R. Fucik), additionally with the combined clinical cardiovascular MRI & modeling expertise of R. Chabiniok (Inria). A flow phantom was constructed at IKEM and used to perform an extensive experimental study targeted to capture the phenomena in valvular stenosis / regurgitation. The Mathematical modeling group at CTU then performed flow simulations by using the techniques of Lattice-Boltzmann method and their high-performance computing GPU implementations. This work is shedding light into possibly significant factors limiting the direct interpretation of PC MRI and opening the way into interaction of PC MRI data with mathematical model as a “smart filtering” of flow exam.

Skin multiscale mechanics

Participant : Jean-Marc Allain [correspondant] .

Skin is a complex, multi-layered organ, with important functions in the protection of the body. The dermis provides structural support to the epidermal barrier, and thus has attracted a large number of mechanical studies. As the dermis is made of a mixture of stiff fibres embedded in a soft non-fibrillar matrix, it is classically considered that its mechanical response is based on an initial alignment of the fibres, followed by the stretching of the aligned fibres. Using a recently developed set-up combining multiphoton microscopy with mechanical assay, we imaged the fibres network evolution during dermis stretching. These observations, combined with a wide set of mechanical tests, allowed us to challenge the classical microstructural interpretation of the mechanical properties of the dermis: we observed a continuous alignment of the collagen fibres along the stretching. All our results can be explained if each fibre contributes by a given stress to the global response. This plastic response is likely due to inner sliding inside each fibre. The non-linear mechanical response is due to structural effects of the fibres network in interaction with the surrounding non-linear matrix. This multiscale interpretation explains our results on genetically-modified mice with a simple alteration of the dermis microstructure. Our previous works have led us to write this year one review article and one chapter of book on multiscale skin biomechanics, to be published next year.

Cornea biomechanics

Participants : Chloé Giraudet, Jean-Marc Allain [correspondant] , Patrick Le Tallec.

Cornea is the outer part of the eye. It is a curved transparent organ, which gives 2/3 of the focalisation capacity of the eye. Microscopically, it is made mostly of collagen fibres (as skin) organised in cristal-like lamellae of few micrometers of height and a hundred micrometers in length and width. The lamellae are piled up in a plywood structure, creating a millimetre-thick tissue. Between the lamellae, some cells are present to repair and regenerate the tissue. However, this simple image of the organisation of the collagen is in fact too simple and a more complex heterogeneous organisation has been recently described, with in particular some striae (called the Vogt striae). In C. Giraudet's PhD, we propose to explore the link between microstructure organisation of the collagen in the cornea and mechanical properties. To do so, we will first start by proposing an extension of classical mechanical models (such as Holzapfel's law or others) to the specific case of the cornea. This model will be tested against mechanical assays made under advanced optical microscopes to test first if the model can correctly predict the strain field in volume, and secondly if it correctly predicts the evolution of the lamellae microstructure at different stretch levels. At the moment, we have developed the tools to mechanically test the cornea, but also to build a finite element simulation using the real shape of the cornea we are looking at.

Multiscale properties of the passive cardiac muscle

Participants : Nicole Tueni, Jean-Marc Allain [correspondant] , Martin Genet.

We are interested in understanding the effect of the remodelling of cardiac tissues after a disease. Cardiac tissues are mostly made of muscle cells. They can remodel themselves in response to an alteration of their normal response by modifying the sizes and the geometries of the cells in the tissue. Nowadays, we are able to describe the active and passive response of a cardiac tissue, assuming we know the main orientation of the cells inside. However, we do not have models which include explicitly the microstructural cellular organization. Such complex models will be strongly beneficial to determine the consequences of local alterations of the muscle behaviour. In N. Tueni's PhD, we are investigating this multi-scale relationship. To do so, we are imaging the organization at the microscale, while measuring the mechanical properties. These results will be the building block to test and develop mechanical models of the cardiac tissues.

Mechano-perception at the cell level

Participant : Jean-Marc Allain [correspondant] .

All cells and organisms experience mechanical forces. Plants along their life are submitted from their environment to long lasting sustained stresses and to recurrent cyclic loading/unloading due to wind or water stream. Mechanical stimulations induce short-term cellular responses, leading to mechanoresponsive gene activation followed by long-term responses permitting structural reinforcement at the whole-plant level. We show that the Mechanosensitive channel Small conductance-Like 10 (MSL10) contributes to oscillation perception at the cell level. This channel responds to pulsed membrane stretching with rapid activation and relaxation. Furthermore, oscillatory pressure stimulation modulates its activity, with increased open probability upon oscillatory than during sustained stimulation. Combined with the adequate localization of MSL10 in plant shoot and leaves, its ability to detect oscillatory deformation at the molecular-scale is relevant for a function of this channel in oscillatory perception in plant.