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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: New Results

Slow-fast dynamics in Neuroscience

Spike-adding in a canonical three time scale model: superslow explosion & folded-saddle canards

Participants : Mathieu Desroches, Vivien Kirk [University of Auckland, New-Zealand] .

We examine the origin of complex bursting oscillations in a phenomenological ordinary differential equation model with three time scales. We show that bursting solutions in this model arise from a Hopf bifurcation followed by a sequence of spike-adding transitions, in a manner reminiscent of spike-adding transitions previously observed in systems with two time scales. However, the details of the process can be much more complex in this three-time-scale context than in two-time-scale systems. In particular, we find that spike-adding can involve canard explosions occurring on two different time scales and is associated with passage near a folded-saddle singularity. We show that the character of the bursting and the form of spike-adding transitions that occur depend on the geometry of certain singular limit systems, specifically the relative positions of the critical and superslow manifolds. We also show that, unlike the case of spike-adding in two-time-scale systems, the onset of a new spike in our model is not typically associated with a local maximum in the period of the bursting oscillation.

This work has been published in SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems and is available as [14].

Parabolic bursting, spike-adding, dips and slices in a minimal model

Participants : Mathieu Desroches, Jean-Pierre Françoise [LJLL, Sorbonne Université, Paris] , Martin Krupa [Université de Nice - LJAD, UCA, Inria MathNeuro] .

A minimal system for parabolic bursting, whose associated slow flow is integrable, is presented and studied both from the viewpoint of bifurcation theory of slow-fast systems, of the qualitative analysis of its phase portrait and of numerical simulations. We focus the analysis on the spike-adding phenomenon. After a reduction to a periodically forced 1-dimensional system, we uncover the link with the dips and slices first discussed by J. E. Littlewood in his famous articles on the periodically forced van der Pol system.

This work has been submitted for publication and is available as [25].

Piecewise-linear (PWL) canard dynamics : Simplifying singular perturbation theory in the canard regime using piecewise-linear systems

Participants : Mathieu Desroches, Soledad Fernández-García [University of Sevilla, Spain] , Martin Krupa [Université de Nice - LJAD, UCA, Inria MathNeuro] , Rafel Prohens [University of the Balearic Islands, Spain] , Antonio E. Teruel [University of the Balearic Islands, Spain] .

In this work we have gathered recent results on piecewise-linear (PWL) slow-fast dynamical systems in the canard regime. By focusing on minimal systems in 2 (one slow and one fast variables) and 3 (two slow and one fast variables), we prove the existence of (maximal) canard solutions and show that the main salient features from smooth systems is preserved. We also highlight how the PWL setup carries a level of simplification of singular perturbation theory in the canard regime, which makes it more amenable to present it to various audiences at an introductory level. Finally, we present a PWL version of Fenichel theorems about slow manifolds, which are valid in the normally hyperbolic regime and in any dimension, which also offers a simplified framework for such persistence results.

This work has been published as a chapter in the book “Nonlinear Systems, Vol. 1: Mathematical Theory and Computational Methods” published by Springer as part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series, and it is available as [22].

Anticipation via canards in excitable systems

Participants : Elif Köksal Ersöz, Mathieu Desroches, Claudio Mirasso [University of the Balearic Islands, Spain] , Serafim Rodrigues [Ikerbasque & Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, Spain] .

Neurons can anticipate incoming signals by exploiting a physiological mechanism not well understood. This article offers a novel explanation on how a receiver neuron can predict the sender's dynamics in a unidirectionally-coupled configuration, in which both sender-receiver follow the evolution of a multi-scale excitable system. We present a novel theoretical view point based on a mathematical object, called canard, to explain anticipation in excitable systems. We provide a numerical approach, which allows to determine the transient effects of canards. To demonstrate the general validity of canard-mediated anticipation in the context of excitable systems, we illustrate our framework in two examples, a multi-scale radio-wave circuit (the van der Pol model) that inspired a caricature neuronal model (the FitzHugh-Nagumo model) and a biophysical neuronal model (a 2-dimentional reduction of the Hodgkin-Huxley model), where canards act as messengers to the senders' prediction. We also propose an experimental paradigm that would enable experimental neuroscientists to validate our predictions. We conclude with an outlook to possible fascinating research avenues to further unfold the mechanisms underpinning anticipation. We envisage that our approach can be employed to a wider class of excitable systems with appropriate theoretical extensions. Anticipation appears as a counter-intuitive observation in a wide range of dynamical systems ranging from biology to engineering applications. It can occur in unidirectionally coupled systems when the receiver is subject to a self-delayed feedback in addition to a signal coming from the sender. This particular interaction permits the receiver to predict the future trajectory of the sender. Anticipation can occur transiently, thus straightforwardly denoted anticipation, or in long-term dynamics, in which case it is referred to as anticipated synchronization. In this study, we focus on both aspects of anticipatory dynamics in the context of excitable systems and explain it via a counter-intuitive phenomenon, namely canards. Canard trajectories structure the excitability and synchronization properties of multiple timescale systems exhibiting excitable dynamics. By developing a theoretical framework enhanced by numerical continuation, we show that the underlying canard structure in excitable systems is responsible for delaying sub-threshold solutions, but anticipating the spiking ones. We also propose an experimental set up that would enable experimentalists to observe anticipated behavior in neural systems, in particular in type-II neurons.

This work has been accepted for publication in Chaos and is available as [17].

Canard-induced complex oscillations in an excitatory network

Participants : Elif Köksal Ersöz, Mathieu Desroches, Antoni Guillamon [Polytechnic University of Catalunya, Spain] , Joel Tabak [University of Exeter, UK] .

In this work we have revisited a rate model that accounts for the spontaneous activity in the developing spinal cord of the chicken embryo [50]. The dynamics is that of a classical square-wave burster, with alternation of silent and active phases. Tabak et al. [50] have proposed two different three-dimensional (3D) models with variables representing average population activity, fast activity-dependent synaptic depression and slow activity-dependent depression of two forms. In [47], [48], [49] various 3D combinations of these four variables have been studied further to reproduce rough experimental observations of spontaneous rhythmic activity. In this work, we have first shown the spike-adding mechanism via canards in one of these 3D models from [50] where the fourth variable was treated as a control parameter. Then we discussed how a canard-mediated slow passage in the 4D model explains the sub-threshold oscillatory behavior which cannot be reproduced by any of the 3D models, giving rise to mixed-mode bursting oscillations (MMBOs); see [6]. Finally, we relateed the canard-mediated slow passage to the intervals of burst and silent phase which have been linked to the blockade of glutamatergic or GABAergic/glycinergic synapses over a wide range of developmental stages [49].

This work is in progress and is available as [27].

High-frequency forced oscillations in neuronlike elements

Participants : Denis Zakharov [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia] , Martin Krupa [Université de Nice - LJAD, UCA, Inria MathNeuro] , Boris Gutkin [Group for Neural Theory, ENS Paris, France] , Alexey Kuznetsov [Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, USA] .

We analyzed a generic relaxation oscillator under moderately strong forcing at a frequency much greater that the natural intrinsic frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the forcing is of the same sign and, thus, has a nonzero average, matching neuroscience applications. We found that, first, the transition to high-frequency synchronous oscillations occurs mostly through periodic solutions with virtually no chaotic regimes present. Second, the amplitude of the high-frequency oscillations is large, suggesting an important role for these oscillations in applications. Third, the 1:1 synchronized solution may lose stability, and, contrary to other cases, this occurs at smaller, but not at higher frequency differences between intrinsic and forcing oscillations. We analytically built a map that gives an explanation of these properties. Thus, we found a way to substantially “overclock” the oscillator with only a moderately strong external force. Interestingly, in application to neuroscience, both excitatory and inhibitory inputs can force the high-frequency oscillations.

This work has been published in Physical Review E and is available as [21].