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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: Research Program

Hybrid and Exploratory Knowledge Discovery

Keywords:

knowledge discovery in databases, knowledge discovery in databases guided by domain knowledge, data mining, data exploration, formal concept analysis, classification, pattern mining, numerical methods in data mining.

Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) aims at discovering patterns in large databases. These patterns can then be interpreted as knowledge units to be reused in knowledge systems. From an operational point of view, the KDD process is based on three main steps: (i) selection and preparation of the data, (ii) data mining, (iii) interpretation of the discovered patterns. The KDD process –as implemented in the Orpailleur team– is based on data mining methods which are either symbolic or numerical. Symbolic methods are based on pattern mining (e.g. mining frequent itemsets, association rules, sequences...), Formal Concept Analysis (FCA [74]) and extensions of FCA such as Pattern Structures [79] and Relational Concept Analysis (RCA [84]). Numerical methods are based on Random Forests, SVM, Neural Networks, and probabilistic approaches such as second-order Hidden Markov Models (HMM [80]).

Domain knowledge, when available, can improve and guide the KDD process, materializing the idea of Knowledge Discovery guided by Domain Knowledge or KDDK. In KDDK, domain knowledge plays a role at each step of KDD: the discovered patterns can be interpreted as knowledge units and reused for problem-solving activities in knowledge systems, implementing the exploratory process “mining, interpreting (modeling), representing, and reasoning”. In this way, knowledge discovery appears as a core task in knowledge engineering, with an impact in various semantic activities, e.g. information retrieval, recommendation and ontology engineering. Usual application domains include agronomy, astronomy, biology, chemistry, and medicine.

One main operation in the research work of Orpailleur on KDDK is classification, which is a polymorphic process involved in modeling, mining, representing, and reasoning tasks. Classification problems can be formalized by means of a class of objects (or individuals), a class of attributes (or properties), and a binary correspondence between the two classes, indicating for each individual-property pair whether the property applies to the individual or not. The properties may be features that are present or absent, or the values of a property that have been transformed into binary variables. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) relies on the analysis of such binary tables and may be considered as a symbolic data mining technique to be used for extracting a set of formal concepts then organized within a concept lattice [74] (concept lattices are also known as “Galois lattices” [71]).

In parallel, the search for frequent itemsets and the extraction of association rules are well-known symbolic data mining methods, related to FCA (actually searching for frequent itemsets can be understood as traversing a concept lattice). Both processes usually produce a large number of items and rules, leading to the associated problems of “mining the sets of extracted items and rules”. Some subsets of itemsets, e.g. frequent closed itemsets (FCIs), allow finding interesting subsets of association rules, e.g. informative association rules. This explains why several algorithms are needed for mining data depending on specific applications [86].

For being able to deal with complex and large data, numerical data mining methods can be associated with symbolic methods, for improving applicability and efficiency of knowledge discovery. This is particularly true in classification, where supervised and unsupervised approaches may be combined with benefits [77].