## Section: New Results

### Lung and respiration modeling

Participants : Laurent Boudin, Céline Grandmont, Marina Vidrascu, Marc Thiriet, Irene Vignon Clementel.

In [34] we analyse multiscale models arising in the description of physiological flows such as blood flow in arteries or air flow in the bronchial tree. The fluid in the 3D part is described by the Stokes or the Navier-Stokes system which is coupled to 0D models or so-called Windkessel models. The resulting Navier-Stokes-Windkessel coupled system involves Neumann non-local boundary conditions that depends on the considered applications. We first show that the different types of Windkessel models share a similar formalism. Next we derive stability estimates for the continuous coupled Stokes-Windkessel or Navier-Stokes-Windkessel problem as well as stability estimates for the semi-discretized systems with either implicit or explicit coupling.We exhibit different kinds of behavior depending on the considered 0D model. Moreover even if no energy estimates can be derived in energy norms for the Navier-Stokes-Windkessel system, leading to possible numerical instabilities for large applied pressures, we show that stability estimates for both the continuous and semi-discrete problems, can be obtained in appropriate norms for small enough data by introducing a new well chosen Stokes-like operator. These sufficient stability conditions on the data may give a hint on the order of magnitude of the data enabling stable computations without stabilization method for the problem.

In [17], we consider a multi-species kinetic model which leads to the Maxwell-Stefan equations under a standard diffusive scaling (small Knudsen and Mach numbers). We propose a suitable numerical scheme which approximates both the solution of the kinetic model in rarefied regime and the one in the diffusion limit. We prove some a priori estimates (mass conservation and nonnegativity) and well-posedness of the discrete problem. We also present numerical examples where we observe the asymptotic-preserving behavior of the scheme.

In [30], we are interested in a system of fluid equations for mixtures with a stiff relaxation term of Maxwell-Stefan diffusion type. We use the formalism developed by Chen, Levermore, Liu to obtain a limit system of Fick type where the species velocities tend to align to a bulk velocity when the relaxation parameter remains small.

In [29], we consider the Boltzmann operator for mixtures with cutoff Maxwellian, hard potentials, or hard spheres collision kernels. In a perturbative regime around the global Maxwellian equilibrium, the linearized Boltzmann multi-species operator $L$ is known to possess an explicit spectral gap, in the global equilibrium weighted ${L}^{2}$ space. We study a new operator ${L}_{\epsilon}$ obtained by linearizing the Boltzmann operator for mixtures around local Maxwellian distributions, where all the species evolve with different small macroscopic velocities of order $\epsilon >0$. This is a non-equilibrium state for the mixture. We establish a quasi-stability property for the Dirichlet form of ${L}_{\epsilon}$ in the global equilibrium weighted ${L}^{2}$ space. More precisely, we consider the explicit upper bound that has been proved for the entropy production functional associated to $L$ and we show that the same estimate holds for the entropy production functional associated to ${L}_{\epsilon}$, up to a correction of order $\epsilon $.