Section: New Results
Optimal control: new results
Let us list here our new results in optimal control theory beyond the subRiemannian framework.

In order to determine the optimal strategy to run a race on a curved track according to the lane number, we introduce in [7] a model based on differential equations for the velocity, the propulsive force and the anaerobic energy which takes into account the centrifugal force. This allows us to analyze numerically the different strategies according to the types of track since different designs of tracks lead to straights of different lengths. In particular, we find that the tracks with shorter straights lead to better performances, while the double bend track with the longest straight leads to the worst performances and the biggest difference between lanes. Then for a race with two runners, we introduce a psychological interaction: there is an attraction to follow someone just ahead, but after being overtaken, there is a delay before any benefit from this interaction occurs. We provide numerical simulations in different cases. Overall, the results agree with the IAAF rules for lane draws in competition, where the highest ranked athletes get the center lanes, the next ones the outside lanes, while the lowest ranked athletes get the inside lanes.

Consider a general nonlinear optimal control problem in finite dimension, with constant state and/or control delays. By the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, any optimal trajectory is the projection of a Pontryagin extremal. In [11] we establish that, under appropriate assumptions, Pontryagin extremals depend continuously on the parameter delays, for adequate topologies. The proof of the continuity of the trajectory and of the control is quite easy, however, for the adjoint vector, the proof requires a much finer analysis. The continuity property of the adjoint with respect to the parameter delay opens a new perspective for the numerical implementation of indirect methods, such as the shooting method. We also discuss the sharpness of our assumptions.

In [15] we are concerned about the controllability of a general linear hyperbolic system in one space dimension using boundary controls on one side. More precisely, we establish the optimal time for the null and exact controllability of the hyperbolic system under some is a generic setting. We also present examples which yield that the generic requirement is necessary. Our approach is based on the backstepping method paying a special attention on the construction of the kernel and the selection of controls.

A new approach to estimate traffic energy consumption via traffic data aggregation in (speed,acceleration) probability distributions is proposed in [18]. The aggregation is done on each segment composing the road network. In order to reduce data occupancy, clustering techniques are used to obtain meaningful classes of traffic conditions. Different times of the day with similar speed patterns and traffic behavior are thus grouped together in a single cluster. Different energy consumption models based on the aggregated data are proposed to estimate the energy consumption of the vehicles in the road network. For validation purposes, a microscopic traffic simulator is used to generate the data and compare the estimated energy consumption to the reference one. A thorough sensitivity analysis with respect to the parameters of the proposed method (i.e. number of clusters, size of the distributions support, etc.) is also conducted in simulation. Finally, a reallife scenario using floating car data is analyzed to evaluate the applicability and the robustness of the proposed method.

In [24] we consider a spectral optimal design problem involving the Neumann traces of the DirichletLaplacian eigenfunctions on a smooth bounded open subset $\Omega $ of ${\mathbf{R}}^{n}$. The cost functional measures the amount of energy that Dirichlet eigenfunctions concentrate on the boundary and that can be recovered with a bounded density function. We first prove that, assuming a ${L}^{1}$ constraint on densities, the socalled Rellich functions maximize this functional.Motivated by several issues in shape optimization or observation theory where it is relevant to deal with bounded densities, and noticing that the ${L}^{\infty}$norm of Rellich functions may be large, depending on the shape of $\Omega $, we analyze the effect of adding pointwise constraints when maximizing the same functional. We investigate the optimality of bangbang functions and Rellich densities for this problem. We also deal with similar issues for a close problem, where the cost functional is replaced by a spectral approximation. Finally, this study is completed by the investigation of particular geometries and is illustrated by several numerical simulations.

In [25] we consider the task of solving an aircraft trajectory optimization problem where the system dynamics have been estimated from recorded data. Additionally, we want to avoid optimized trajectories that go too far away from the domain occupied by the data, since the model validity is not guaranteed outside this region. This motivates the need for a proximity indicator between a given trajectory and a set of reference trajectories. In this presentation, we propose such an indicator based on a parametric estimator of the training set density. We then introduce it as a penalty term in the optimal control problem. Our approach is illustrated with an aircraft minimal consumption problem and recorded data from real flights. We observe in our numerical results the expected tradeoff between the consumption and the penalty term.

In [36] we study how bad can be the singularities of a timeoptimal trajectory of a generic control affine system. In the case where the control is scalar and belongs to a closed interval it was recently shown that singularities cannot be, generically, worse than finite order accumulations of Fuller points, with order of accumulation lower than a bound depending only on the dimension of the manifold where the system is set. We extend here such a result to the case where the control has an even number of scalar components and belongs to a closed ball.

In [38] we develop a geometric analysis and a numerical algorithm, based on indirect methods, to solve optimal guidance of endoatmospheric launch vehicle systems under mixed controlstate constraints. Two main difficulties are addressed. First, we tackle the presence of Euler singularities by introducing a representation of the configuration manifold in appropriate local charts. In these local coordinates, not only the problem is free from Euler singularities but also it can be recast as an optimal control problem with only pure control constraints. The second issue concerns the initialization of the shooting method. We introduce a strategy which combines indirect methods with homotopies, thus providing high accuracy. We illustrate the efficiency of our approach by numerical simulations on missile interception problems under challenging scenarios.

We introduce and study in [51] the turnpike property for timevarying shapes, within the viewpoint of optimal control. We focus here on secondorder linear parabolic equations where the shape acts as a source term and we seek the optimal timevarying shape that minimizes a quadratic criterion. We first establish existence of optimal solutions under some appropriate sufficient conditions. We then provide necessary conditions for optimality in terms of adjoint equations and, using the concept of strict dissipativity, we prove that state and adjoint satisfy the measureturnpike property, meaning that the extremal timevarying solution remains essentially close to the optimal solution of an associated static problem. We show that the optimal shape enjoys the exponential turnpike property in term of Hausdorff distance for a Mayer quadratic cost. We illustrate the turnpike phenomenon in optimal shape design with several numerical simulations.

The work [52] proposes a new approach to optimize the consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle taking into account the traffic conditions. The method is based on a bilevel decomposition in order to make the implementation suitable for online use. The offline lower level computes cost maps thanks to a stochastic optimization that considers the influence of traffic, in terms of speed/acceleration probability distributions. At the online upper level, a deterministic optimization computes the ideal state of charge at the end of each road segment, using the computed cost maps. Since the high computational cost due to the uncertainty of traffic conditions has been managed at the lower level, the upper level is fast enough to be used online in the vehicle. Errors due to discretization and computation in the proposed algorithm have been studied. Finally, we present numerical simulations using actual traffic data, and compare the proposed bilevel method to a deterministic optimization with perfect information about traffic conditions. The solutions show a reasonable overconsumption compared with deterministic optimization, and manageable computational times for both the offline and online parts.

An extension of the bilevel optimization for the energy management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) proposed in [52] to the ecorouting problem is presented in [53]. Using the knowledge of traffic conditions over the entire road network, we search both the optimal path and state of charge trajectory. This problem results in finding the shortest path on a weighted graph whose nodes are (position, state of charge) pairs for the vehicle, the edge cost being evaluated thanks to the cost maps from optimization at the 'micro' level of a bilevel decomposition. The error due to the discretization of the state of charge is proven to be linear if the cost maps are Lipschitz. The classical ${A}^{*}$ algorithm is used to solve the problem, with a heuristic based on a lower bound of the energy needed to complete the travel. The ecorouting method is validated by numerical simulations and compared to the fastest path on a synthetic road network.

In [58] we study a driftless system on a threedimensional manifold driven by two scalar controls. We assume that each scalar control has an independent bound on its modulus and we prove that, locally around every point where the controlled vector fields satisfy some suitable nondegeneracy Lie bracket condition, every timeoptimal trajectory has at most five bang or singular arcs. The result is obtained using firstand secondorder necessary conditions for optimality.