## Section: New Results

### Communication Networks

Participants : Thomas Begin, Anthony Busson, Isabelle Guérin Lassous, Marion Foare, Philippe Nain, Lafdal Abdelwedoud, Marija Stojanova, Rémy Grünblatt, Juan Pablo Astudillo.

#### Quantum communications

In [29] we investigate the performance of a quantum switch serving a set of users. The function of the switch is to convert bipartite entanglement generated over individual links connecting each user to the switch, into bipartite or tripartite entangled states among (pairs or groups of) users at the highest possible rates at a fixed ratio. Such entanglement can then be converted to quantum-secure shared secret bits among pairs or triples of users using E91-like Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols. The switch can store a certain number of qubits in a quantum memory for a certain length of time, and can make two-qubit Bell-basis measurements or three-qubit GHZ-basis projective measurements on qubits held in the memory. We model a set of randomized switching policies. Discovering that some are better than others, we present analytical results for the case where the switch stores one qubit per user at a given time step, and find that the best policies outperform a time division multiplexing (TDM) policy for sharing the switch between bipartite and tripartite entanglement generation. This performance improvement decreases as the number of users grows. The model is easily augmented to study the capacity region in the presence of qubit decoherence, obtaining similar results. Moreover, decoherence appears to have little effect on capacity. We also study a smaller class of policies when the switch can store two qubits per user.

#### Resource Allocation

In [28] we consider assignment policies that allocate resources to users, where both resources and users are located on a one-dimensional line $[0,\infty \infty )$. First, we consider unidirectional assignment policies that allocate resources only to users located to their left. We propose the Move to Right (MTR) policy, which scans from left to right assigning nearest rightmost available resource to a user, and contrast it to the Unidirectional Gale-Shapley (UGS) matching policy. While both policies among all unidirectional policies minimize the expected distance traveled by a request (request distance), MTR is fairer. Moreover, we show that when user and resource locations are modeled by statistical point processes, and resources are allowed to satisfy more than one user, the spatial system under unidirectional policies can be mapped into bulk service queueing systems, thus allowing the application of many queueing theory results that yield closed-form expressions. As we consider a case where different resources can satisfy different numbers of users, we also generate new results for bulk service queues. We also consider bidirectional policies where there are no directional restrictions on resource allocation and develop an algorithm for computing the optimal assignment which is more efficient than known algorithms in the literature when there are more resources than users. Finally, numerical evaluation of performance of unidirectional and bidirectional allocation schemes yields design guidelines beneficial for resource placement.

#### VoD broadcasting over vehicular networks

Participants : Thomas Begin, Anthony Busson, Isabelle Guérin Lassous.

We consider a VoD (Video on-Demand) platform designed for vehicles traveling on a highway or other major roadway. Typically, cars or buses would subscribe to this delivery service so that their passengers get access to a catalog of movies and series stored on a back-end server. The network infrastructure comprises IEEE 802.11p RSUs (Road Side Units) that are deployed along the highway and deliver video content to traveling vehicles. In this paper, we propose a simple analytical and yet accurate solution to estimate two key performance parameters for a VoD platform: (i) the average download data rate experienced by vehicles over their journey and (ii) the average ‘‘interruption time’’, which corresponds to the fraction of time the video playback of a given vehicle is interrupted because of an empty buffer. Through multiple examples, we investigate the influence of several parameters (e.g., the video bit rate, the number of vehicles, the distance between RSUs, the vehicle velocity) on these two performance parameters whose outcome may help the sizing of an IEEE 802.11p-based VoD platform [12].

#### Performance Evaluation of Channel Bonding in IEEE 802.11ac

Participants : Thomas Begin, Anthony Busson, Marija Stojanova.

WLANs grow in popularity in home, public, and work environments, resulting in constantly increasing demands for wireless coverage and capacity. There exist two dominant strategies that help solve the problem of WLAN capacity: the deployment of more APs and enhancement of the standards in use. These policies result in WLANs containing a larger number of more complex devices, making the prediction of the network's behavior an even more elaborate problem. Because of these issues, WLANs are prone to inefficient configurations. In this paper, we propose a Markovian continuous time model that aims at predicting the throughputs achieved by all the WLAN's APs as a function of the network's topology and the AP's throughput demands. By means of simulation, we show that our model achieves mean relative errors of less than 10% for networks of different sizes and with diverse node configurations. The model is adapted to the specificities of the IEEE 802.11ac standard amendment and can be used to solve problems such as channel assignment or channel bonding. We derive guidelines on the best practice in channel bonding given a performance metric and for different MCS indexes, frame aggregation rates, saturation levels, and network topologies. We then put our findings to the test by identifying the optimal channel bonding combination in a WLAN containing a diverse set of nodes.

#### Distributed Congestion Control mechanism for NANs

Participants : Thomas Begin, Anthony Busson, Juan Pablo Astudillo.

The need for significant improvements in the management and efficient use of electrical energy has led to the evolution from the traditional electrical infrastructures towards modern Smart Grid networks. Taking into account the critical importance of this type of networks, multiple research groups focus their work on issues related to the generation, transport and consumption of electrical energy. One of the key research points is the data communication network associated with the electricity transport infrastructure, and specifically the network that interconnects the devices in consumers' homes, the so-called Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs). In this paper, a new distributed congestion control mechanism is proposed, implemented and evaluated for NANs. Besides, different priorities have been considered for the traffic flows transmitted by different applications. The main goal is to provide with the needed Quality of Service (QoS) to all traffic flows, especially in high traffic load situations. The proposal is evaluated in the context of a wireless ad hoc network made up by a set of smart meter devices, using the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol and the IEEE 802.11ac physical layer standard. The application of the proposed congestion control mechanism, together with the necessary modifications made to the AODV protocol, lead to performance improvements in terms of packet delivery ratio, network throughput and transit time, fairness between different traffic sources and QoS provision [35].

#### Simulation and Performance Evaluation of the Intel Rate Adaptation Algorithm

Participants : Rémy Grünblatt, Isabelle Guérin-Lassous.

With the rise of the complexity of the IEEE 802.11 standard, rate adaptation algorithms have to deal with a large set of values for all the different parameters having an impact on the network throughput. Simple trial-and-error algorithms can no longer explore solution space in reasonable time and smart solutions are required. Most of the WiFi controllers rely on proprietary code and the used rate adaptation algorithms in these controllers are unknown. Very few WiFi controllers expose their rate adaptation algorithms if they do not rely on the Minstrel-HT algorithm which is implemented in the mac80211 component of the Linux kernel. Intel WiFi controllers come with their own rate adaptation algorithms that are implemented in the Intel IwlWifi Linux Driver which is open-source.

In this work, we have reverse-engineered the Intel rate adaptation mechanism from the source code of the IwlWifi Linux driver, and we give, in a comprehensive form, the underlying rate adaptation algorithm named Iwl-Mvm-Rs . We describe the different mechanisms used to seek the best throughput adapted to the network conditions. We have also implemented the Iwl-Mvm-Rs algorithm in the NS-3 simulator. Thanks to this implementation, we can evaluate the performance of Iwl-Mvm-Rs in different scenarios (static and with mobility, with and without fast fading). We also compare the performances of Iwl-Mvm-Rs with the ones of Minstrel-HT and IdealWifi , also implemented in the NS-3 simulator [26], [32].

#### A Passive Method to Infer the Weighted Conflict Graph of a IEEE 802.11 Network

Participants : Lafdal Abdelwedoud, Anthony Busson, Isabelle Guérin-Lassous, Marion Foare.

Wi-Fi networks often consist of several Access Points (APs) to form an Extended Service Set. These APs may interfere with each other as soon as they use the same channel or overlapping channels. A classical model to describe interference is the conflict graph. As the interference level varies in the network and in time, we consider a weighted conflict graph. In this work, we propose a method to infer the weights of the conflict graph of a Wi-Fi network.

Weights represent the proportion of activity from a neighbor detected by the Clear Channel Assessment mechanism. Our method relies on a theoretical model based on Markov networks applied to a decomposition of the original conflict graph. The input of our solution is the activity measured at each AP, measurements available in practice. The proposed method is validated through ns-3 simulations performed for different scenarios. Results show that our solution is able to accurately estimate the weights of the conflict graph. [24], [34].