Section: Scientific Foundations
Satellite acquisitions and image assimilation
In geosciences, the issue of coupling data, in particular satellite acquisitions, and models is extensively studied for meteorology, oceanography, chemistry-transport models, land surface models. However, satellite images are mainly assimilated on a point-wise basis, without taking into account their spatial structures. To better understand our research orientation, a classification of image assimilation methods is proposed:
Image approach. Image assimilation allows the extraction of features from image sequences, for instance motion fields. A model of the dynamics is considered (often obtained by simplification of a physical model such as the Navier-Stokes equations). An observation operator is defined to express the links between the model state and the pixel value. In the simplest case, the pixel value corresponds to one coordinate of the model state and the observation operator is a projection. However, in most cases, the operator is highly complex, implicit and non-linear. Data assimilation techniques are developed to control the initial state or the whole assimilation window. Image assimilation is also applied to learn reduced models from image data and estimate a reliable and small-size reconstruction of the dynamics.
Model approach. Image assimilation is used to control an environmental model and obtain improved forecasts. In order to take into account the spatial and temporal coherency of structures, specific image characteristics are considered, and dedicated norms and observation error covariances are defined.
Correcting a model. Another topic, mainly described for meteorology in the literature, concerns the location of structures. How to force the existence and to correct the location of structures in the model state using image information? Most of the operational meteorological forecasting institutes, such as MétéoFrance, UK-met, KNMI (in Netherlands), ZAMG (in Austria) and Met-No (in Norway), study this issue because operational forecasters often modify their forecasts based on comparisons between the model outputs and the structures displayed on satellite images.