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Section: Dissemination

Popularization

The Web is becoming the richest platform on which to create computer applications. Its power comes from three elements: modern Web browsers enable highly sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with 3D, multimedia, fancy typesetting, among others; calling existing services through Web APIs makes it possible to develop sophisticated applications from independently available components; and open-data availability allows access to a wide set of information that was unreachable or that simply did not exist before. The combination of these three elements has already given birth to revolutionary applications such as GoogleMaps, radio podcasts, and social networks.

The next step is likely to be incorporating the physical environment into the Web. Recent electronic devices are equipped with various sensors (GPS, cameras, microphones, metal detectors, speech commands, thermometers, motion detection, and so on) and communication means (IP stack, telephony, SMS, Bluetooth), which enable applications to interact with the real world. Web browsers integrate these features one after the other, making the Web runtime environment richer every day. The future is appealing, but one difficulty remains: current programming methods and languages are not ideally suited for implementing rich Web applications. This is not surprising as most have been invented in the 20 th century, before the Web became what it is now.

Traditional programming languages have trouble dealing with the asymmetric client-server architecture of Web applications. Ensuring the semantic coherence of distributed client-server execution is challenging, and traditional languages have no transparent support for physical distribution. Thus, programmers need to master a complex gymnastics for handling distributed applications, most often using different languages for clients and servers. JavaScript is the dominant Web language but was conceived as a browser only client language. Servers are usually programmed with quite different languages such as Java, PHP, Ruby, etc. Recent experiments such as Node.js propose using JavaScript on the server, which makes the development more coherent; however, harmonious composition of independent components is still not ensured.

In 2006, three different projects, namely, GWT from Google, Links from the University of Edinburgh, and Hop from Inria (http://www.inria.fr ) [4] , offered alternative methods for programming Web applications. They all proposed that a Web application should be programmed as a single code for the server and client, written in a single unified language. This principle is known as multitier programming.

Links is an experimental languages in which the server holds no state and functions can be symmetrically called from both sides, allowing them to be declared on either the server or the client. These features are definitely interesting for exploring new programming ideas, but they are difficult to implement efficiently, making the platform difficult to use for realistic applications.

GWT is more pragmatic. It maps traditional Java programming into the Web. A GWT program looks like a traditional Java/Swing program compiled to Java bytecode for the server side and to JavaScript for the client side. Java cannot be considered as the unique language of GWT, however. Calling external APIs relies on Javascipt inclusion in Java extensions. GUIs are based on static components declared in external HTML files and on dynamic parts generated by the client-side execution. Thus, at least Java, Javascript, and HTML are directly involved.

The Hop language takes another path relying on a different idea: incorporating all the required Web-related features into a single language with a single homogeneous development and execution platform, thus uniformly covering all the aspects of a Web application: client-side, server-side, communication, and access to third-party resources. Hop embodies and generalizes both HTML and JavaScript functionalities in a Scheme-based platform that also provides the user with a fully general algorithmic language. Web services and APIs can be used as easily as standard library functions, whether on the server side or client side.

In order to popularize Hop , we have written a paper for targeting engineers which presents on overview of the Hop language and its development environment. It has been simultaneously published in ACM Queue and Communications of the ACM [16] . We have also given several demonstrations of the system. In particular, Cyprien Nicolas has co-developed application software for an educational cable robot (Coprin) presented at the Fête de la Science, in November. The demo consisted in a Cable bot built by a Coprin student and piloted by Hop, the software being written by a Indes student. The demo took place in front of four classes of High School students.