Section: Scientific Foundations
Optimizing cellular network usage
The capacity of cellular networks, even those that are now being planned, does not seem able to cope with the increasing demands of data users. Moreover, new applications with high bandwidth requirements are also foreseen, for example in the intelligent transportation area, and an exponential growth in signaling traffic is expected in order to enable this data growth, especially the one related to future machine-to-machine communications. Cumulated with the lack of available new radio frequency spectrum, this leads to an important challenge for mobile operators, who are looking at both licensed and unlicensed technologies for solutions.
Several approaches can be taken to tackle this problem, the most obvious being to exploit the multitude of alternative network interfaces in order to prevent data to go through the cellular network. In this perspective, taking advantage of the fact that cellular operators usually possess an important ADSL or cable infrastructure for wired services, the development of femtocell solutions has become very popular. However, while femtocells can be an excellent solution in zones with poor coverage, their extensive use in areas with a high density of mobile users leads to serious interference problems that are yet to be solved. Taking advantage of capillarity for offloading cellular data is to use IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi (or other multi-hop technologies) access points or direct device-to-device communications.
The ubiquity of Wi-Fi access in urban areas makes this solution particularly interesting, and many studies have focused on its potential, concluding that more than 65% of the data can be offloaded from the cellular infrastructure in high density areas. However, these studies fail to take into account the usually low quality of Wi-Fi connections in public areas, and they consider that a certain data rate can be sustained by the Wi-Fi network regardless of the number of contending nodes. In reality, most public Wi-Fi networks are optimized for connectivity, but not for capacity, and more research in this area is needed to correctly assess the potential of this technology.
Direct opportunistic communication between mobile users can also be used to offload an important amount of data. This solution raises a number of major problems related to the role of social information and multi-hop communication in the achievable offload capacity. Moreover, in this case the business model is not yet clear, as operators would indeed offload traffic, but also lose revenue as direct ad-hoc communication would be difficult to charge and privacy issues may arise. However, combining hot-spot connectivity and multi-hop communications is an appealing answer to broadcasting geolocalized informations efficiently.
A complementary approach, more operator oriented, for minimizing the transmission power of cellular networks as well as increasing the network capacity, consists in a dramatic increase in the deployment of micro-cells. On the other hand, increasing the number of micro-cells multiplies the energy consumed by the cells whatever their state, idle, transmitting or receiving, which is a major and growing part of the access network energy consumption. For a sustainable deployment of such micro-cell infrastructures and for a significant decrease of the overall energy consumption, an operator needs to be able to switch off cells when they are not absolutely needed. The densification of the cells induces the need for an autonomic control of the on/off state of cells, which can be done by mechanisms inspired by the abundant works on WSNs and adapted to the energy models of micro-cells, and to the requirements of a cellular network, in particular the need for providing an adequate quality of service to dynamic and mobile clients.