Section: New Results
A comparison of fitness-case sampling methods for Symbolic Regression
Participants : Yuliana Martinez, Léonardo Trujillo, Enrique Naredo, Pierrick Legrand.
The canonical approach towards fitness evaluation in Genetic Programming (GP), is to use a static training set to determine fitness, based on a cost function (root-mean-squared error) averaged over all cases. However, motivated by different goals, researchers have recently proposed several techniques that focus selective pressure on a subset of fitnesscases at each generation. These approaches can be described as fitnesscase sampling techniques, where the training set is sampled, in someway, to determine fitness. This paper shows a comprehensive evaluation of some sampling methods using benchmark problems and real-world problems. The algorithms considered here are Interleaved Sampling, Random Interleaved Sampling, Lexicase Selection and a new sampling technique is proposed called Keep-Worst Interleaved Sampling (KW-IS). The algorithms are extensively evaluated based on test performance, overfitting and bloat. Results suggest that sampling techniques can improve performance based on testing error, bloat and overfitting compared to standard GP. Some of the best results were achieved by Lexicase Selection and Keep Worse-Interleaved Sampling which obtained good results in overfitting and bloat effect. Results also show that on these problems overfitting correlates strongly with bloating and exhibits a good compromise among the considered performance measures.