Section: New Results
Weak memory models
Participants : Luc Maranget, Jade Alglave [Microsoft Research, Cambridge] , Patrick Cousot [New York University] , Keryan Didier.
Modern multi-core and multi-processor computers do not follow the intuitive “Sequential Consistency” model that would define a concurrent execution as the interleaving of the executions of its constituent threads and that would command instantaneous writes to the shared memory. This situation is due both to in-core optimisations such as speculative and out-of-order execution of instructions, and to the presence of sophisticated (and cooperating) caching devices between processors and memory. Luc Maranget took part in an international research effort to define the semantics of the computers of the multi-core era, and more generally of shared-memory parallel devices or languages, with a clear focus on devices.
More precisely, in 2015, Luc Maranget collaborated with Jade Alglave and Patrick Cousot to extend “Cats”, a domain-specific language for defining and executing weak memory models. A precise semantics for “Cats” is the core of a submitted journal article that also includes a study and formalisation of the HSA memory model — the Heterogeneous System Architecture foundation is an industry standards body targeting heterogeneous computing devices (see http://www.hsafoundation.com/ ). The new extensions of the Cats language have been integrated in the released version of the diy tool suite (see section 6.2 ).
Luc Maranget also co-authored a paper that will be presented at POPL 2016  . This work describes an operational semantics for the new generation ARM processors. It is joint work with many researchers, including S. Flur and other members of P. Sewell's team (University of Cambridge) and W. Deacon (ARM Ltd).
During his M2 internship, supervised by Luc Maranget, Keryan Didier significantly improved the diy tool suite, in particular by writing front-ends for ARMv8 and for a subset of the C language. Keryan Didier also wrote a new (as yet unreleased) tool to translate between various input languages, in particular from machine assemblers to generic assembler and back.
Algorithms and data structures for parallel computing
Participants : Umut Acar, Vitalii Aksenov, Arthur Charguéraud, Mike Rainey, Filip Sieczkowski.
The ERC Deepsea project, with principal investigator Umut Acar, started in June 2013 and is hosted by the Gallium team. This project aims at developing techniques for parallel and self-adjusting computation in the context of shared-memory multiprocessors (i.e., multicore platforms). The project is continuing work that began at Max Planck Institute for Software Systems between 2010 and 2013. As part of this project, we are developing a C++ library, called PASL, for programming parallel computations at a high level of abstraction. We use this library to evaluate new algorithms and data structures. We obtained three major results this year.
Our result on the development of fast and robust parallel graph traversal algorithms based on depth-first-search has been presented at the ACM/IEEE Conference on High Performance Computing  . This algorithm leverages a new sequence data structure for representing the set of edges remaining to be visited. In particular, it uses a balanced split operation for partitioning the edges of a graph among the processors involved in the computation. Compared with prior work, the new algorithm is designed to be efficient not just for particular classes of graphs, but for all input graphs.
Our second result is a calculus for parallel computing on hardware shared memory computers such as modern multicores. Many languages for writing parallel programs have been developed. These languages offer several distinct abstractions for parallelism, such as fork-join, async-finish, futures, etc. While they may seem similar, these abstractions lead to different semantics, language design and implementation decisions. In this project, we consider the question of whether it would be possible to unify these approaches to parallelism. To this end, we propose a calculus, called the DAG-calculus, which can encode existing approaches to parallelism based on fork-join, async-finish, and futures, and possibly others. We have shown that the approach is realistic by presenting an implementation in C++ and by performing an empirical evaluation. This work has been submitted for publication.
Our third result concerns the development of parallel dynamic algorithms. This year, we started developing a parallel dynamic algorithm for tree computations. The algorithm is dynamic in the sense that it admits changes to the underlying tree in the form of insertions and deletions of edges and vertices and updates the computation by doing total work that is linear in the size of the changes, but only logarithmic in the size of the tree. The algorithm is parallel in the sense that the updates take place in parallel. Parallel algorithms have been studied extensively in the past, but few of these are dynamic. Similarly, dynamic algorithms have also been studied extensively in the past, but few of these are parallel. Our work thus explores what in retrospect seems like an obvious gap in the literature. A paper describing this work is in preparation.