## Section: Research Program

### Supercomputing for Helmholtz problems

Probing invisible with harmonic equations is a need for many scientists and it is also a topic offering a wealth of interesting problems for mathematicians. It is well-known that Helmholtz equations discretization is very sensitive to the frequency scale which can be wide-ranging for some applications. For example, depth imaging is searching for deeper layers which may contain hydrocarbons and frequencies must be of a few tens of Hertz with a very low resolution. If it is to detect hidden objects, the depth of the explored region does not exceed a few tens of meters and frequencies close to the kiloHertz are used. High performing numerical methods should thus be stable for a widest as possible frequency range. In particular, these methods should minimize phenomena of numerical pollution that generate errors which increase faster with frequency than with the inverse of space discretization step. As a consequence, there is a need of mesh refinement, in particular at high frequency.

During the period 2010-2014, the team has worked extensively on high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Like standard Finite Element Methods, they are elaborated with polynomial basis functions and they are very popular because they are defined locally for each element. It is thus easy to use basis polynomial functions with different degrees and this shows the perfect flexibility of the approximation in case of heterogeneous media including homogeneous parts. Indeed, low degree basis functions can be used in heterogeneous regions where a fine grid is necessary while high degree polynomials can be used for coarse elements covering homogeneous parts. In particular, Magique-3D has developed Hou10ni that solves harmonic wave equations with DG methods and curved elements. We found that both the effects of pollution and dispersion, which are very significant when a conventional finite element method is used, are limited [72] . However, bad conditioning is persisting and reliability of the method is not guaranteed when the coefficients vary considerably. In addition, the number of unknowns of the linear system is too big to hope to solve a realistic 3D problem. So it is important to develop approximation methods that require fewer degrees of freedom. Magique-3D wishes to invest heavily in the development of new approximation methods for harmonic wave equations. It is a difficult subject for which we want to develop different tasks, in collaboration with academic researchers with whom we are already working or have established contacts. Research directions that we would like to follow are the following.

First, we will continue our long-term collaboration with Prof. Rabia Djellouli. We want to continue to work on hybrid finite element methods that rely on basis functions composed of plane waves and polynomials. These methods have demonstrated good resistance to the phenomenon of numerical pollution [66] , [67] , but their capability of solving industrial problems has not been illustrated. This is certainly due to the absence of guideline for choosing the plane waves. We are thus currently working on the implementation of a methodology that makes the choice of plane waves automatic for a given simulation (fixed propagation domain, data source, etc.). This is up-front investigation and there is certainly a lot of remaining work before being applied to geophysical imaging. But it gives the team the opportunity to test new ideas while remaining in contact with potential users of the methods.

Then we want to work with Prof. A. Bendali on developing methods of local integral equations which allow calculation of numerical fluxes on the edges of elements. One could then use these fluxes in a DG method for reconstructing the solution throughout the volume of calculation. This research is motivated by recent results which illustrate the difficulties of the existing methods which are not always able to approximate the propagating modes (plane waves) and the evanescent modes (polynomials) that may coexist, especially when one considers realistic applications. Integral equations are direct tools for computing fluxes and they are known for providing very good accuracy. They thus should help to improve the quality of approximation of DG methods which are fully flux-dependent. In addition, local integral equations would limit calculations at the interfaces, which would have the effect of limiting the number of unknowns generally high, especially for DG methods. Again, it is a matter of long-term research which success requires a significant amount of mathematical analysis, and also the development of non-trivial code.

To limit the effects of pollution and dispersion is not the only challenge that the team wants to tackle. Our experience alongside Total has made us aware of the difficulties in constructing meshes that are essential to achieve our simulations. There are several teams at Inria working on mesh generation and we are in contact with them, especially with Gamma3 (Paris-Rocquencourt Research Center). These teams develop meshes increasingly sophisticated to take account of the constraints imposed by realistic industrial benchmarks. But in our opinion, issues which are caused by the construction of meshes are not the only downside. Indeed, we have in mind to solve inverse problems and in this case it is necessary to mesh the domain at each iteration of Newton-type solver. It is therefore interesting to work on methods that either do not use mesh or rely on meshes which are very easy to construct. Regarding meshless methods, we have begun a collaboration with Prof. Djellouli which allowed us to propose a new approach called Mesh-based Frontier Free Formulation (MF3). The principle of this method is the use of fundamental solutions of Helmholtz equations as basic functions. One can then reduce the volumic variational formulation to a surfacic variational formulation which is close to an integral equation, but which does not require the calculation of singularities. The results are very promising and we hope to continue our study in the context of the application to geophysical imaging. An important step to validate this method will be particularly its extension to 3D because the results we have achieved so far are for 2D problems.

Keeping in mind the idea of limiting the difficulties of mesh, we want to study the method of virtual elements. This method attracts us because it relies on meshes that can be made of arbitrarily-shaped polygon and meshes should thus be fairly straightforward. Existing works on the subject have been mainly developed by the University of Pavia, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory [69] , [76] , [75] , [73] , [77] . None of them mentions the feasibility of the method for industrial applications and to our knowledge, there are no results on the method of virtual elements applied to the wave equations. First, we aim at applying the method described in [74] to the scalar Helmholtz equation and explore opportunities to use discontinuous elements within this framework. Then hp-adaptivity could be kept, which is particularly interesting for wave propagation in heterogeneous media.

DG methods are known to require a lot of unknowns that can exceed the limits accepted by the most advanced computers. This is particularly true for harmonic wave equations that require a large number of discretization points, even in the case of a conventional finite element method. We therefore wish to pursue a research activity that we have just started in collaboration with the project-team Nachos (Sophia-Antipolis Méditerranée Research Center). In order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, we are interested in "hybrid mixed" Discontinuous Galerkin methods that provides a two-step procedure for solving the Helmholtz equations [89] , [94] , [92] . First, Lagrange multipliers are introduced to represent the flux of the numerical solution through the interface (edge or face) between two elements. The Lagrange multipliers are solution to a linear system which is constructed locally element by element. The number of degrees of freedom is then strongly reduced since for a standard DG method, there is a need of considering unknowns including volumetric values inside the element. And obviously, the gain is even more important when the order of the element is high. Next, the solution is reconstructed from the values of the multipliers and the cost of this step is negligible since it only requires inverting small-sized matrices. We have obtained promising results in the framework of the PhD thesis of Marie Bonnasse Gahot and we want to apply it to the simulation of complex phenomena such as the 3D viscoelastic wave propagation.

Obviously, the success of all these works depends on our ability to consider realistic applications such as wave propagation in the Earth. And in these cases, it is quite possible that even if we manage to develop accurate less expensive numerical methods, the solution of inverse problems will still be computationally intensive. It is thus absolutely necessary that we conduct our research by taking advantage of the latest advances in high-performance computing. We have already initiated discussions with the project team HIEPACS (Bordeaux Sud-Ouest research Center) to test the performance of the latest features of Mumps http://mumps.enseeiht.fr/ , such as Low Rank Approximation or adaptation to hybrid CPU / GPU architectures and to Intel Xeon Phi, on realistic test cases. We are also in contact with the team Algorithm at Cerfacs (Toulouse) for the development of local integral equations solvers. These collaborations are essential for us and we believe that they will be decisive for the simulation of three-dimensional elastodynamic problems. However, our scientific contribution will be limited in this area because we are not experts in HPC.