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Section: New Results

Data-driven Virtual Cinematography

Participant : Marc Christie.

Our propelling motivation here is to rely on existing data from real movies (automatically extracted or manually annotated), to propose better better and better framing techniques.

We first contributed to the problem of automated editing, by reproducing elements of cinematographic style. Automatically computing a cinematographic consistent sequence of shots over a set of actions occurring in a 3D world is a complex task which requires not only the computation of appropriate shots (viewpoints) and appropriate transitions between shots (cuts), but the ability to encode and reproduce elements of cinematographic style. Models proposed in the literature, generally based on finite state machine or idiom-based representations, provide limited functionalities to build sequences of shots. These approaches are not designed in mind to easily learn elements of cinematographic style, nor do they allow to perform significant variations in style over the same sequence of actions. We have proposed a model for automated cinematography that can compute significant variations in terms of cinematographic style, with the ability to control the duration of shots and the possibility to add specific constraints to the desired sequence. The model is parameterized in a way that facilitates the application of learning techniques. By using a Hidden Markov Model representation of the editing process, we have demonstrated the possibility of easily reproducing elements of style extracted from real movies. Results comparing our model with state-of-the-art first order Markovian representations illustrate these features, and robustness of the learning technique is demonstrated through cross-validation. See [13] for more details.

We also proposed a tool to ease the process of annotating cinematographic content, for the purposes of both film analysis, and film synthesis [29] . The work relies on the proposition of a film language that extends previous representations such as PSL (Prose Storyboard Language) by integrating the editing aspects, through the notion of cinematographic “techniques” described as patterns of shots.

The proposed language, named “Patterns”, is described in more details in [35] . Our language can express the aesthetic properties of framing and shot sequencing, and of camera techniques used by real directors. Patterns can be seen as the semantics of camera transitions from one frame to another. The language takes an editors view of on-screen aesthetic properties: the size, orientation, relative position, and movement of actors and objects across a number of shots. We have illustrated this language through a number of examples and demonstrations. Combined with camera placement algorithms, we demonstrated the language's capacity to create complex shot sequences in data-driven generative systems for 3D storytelling applications.