Section: New Results

Common basic resources

Graph Rewriting

Bruno Guillaume and Guy Perrier have proposed to use Graph Rewriting for parsing syntactic dependencies [17] . It is an application of a Graph Rewriting formalism that they have established with Guillaume Bonfante and Mathieu Morey  [32] and implemented in the Grew software  [47] . They have developed a system of rewriting rules dedicated to French, which they have evaluated by parsing the Sequoia corpus  [33] .

Categorial Logic

Elaborating on the work of Grishin  [45] , Moortgat has introduced the non-associative Lambek-Grishin calculus (LG) as the foundations of a new kind of symmetric categorial grammar  [63] , [64] , which allows for the treatment of linguistic phenomena such as displacement or discontinuous dependencies.

In [16] , we compared LG with the non-associative classical Lambek calculus (CNL) introduced by de Groote and Lamarche  [81] . We provided a translation of LG into CNL, which allows CNL to be seen as a non-conservative extension of LG. We then introduced a bimodal version of CNL that we called 2-CNL. This allowed us to define a faithful translation of LG into 2-CNL. Finally, we showed how to accommodate Grishin's interaction principles by using an appropriate notion of polarity. From this, we derived a new one-sided sequent calculus for LG.

Deep Syntax Annotation of the Sequoia French Treebank

Deep-sequoia introduces a deep syntactic representation scheme for French, built from the surface annotation scheme of the Sequoia corpus and abstracting away from it  [69] . This scheme expresses the grammatical relations between content words. When these grammatical relations take part into verbal diatheses, the diatheses are considered as resulting from redistributions from the canonical diathesis, which is retained in the annotation scheme. The first version of the deep-sequoia corpus was released in 2014.

In November 2015, a new version (7.0) of the corpus was release (see http://deep-sequoia.inria.fr ). Most of the modifications were corrections of annotations that improve the overall consistency of the corpus. Marie Candito and Guy Perrier have published the annotation guidelines associated with the corpus in [22] .

Large Scale Grammatical Resources

Guy Perrier and Bruno Guillaume have achieved the development of a French grammar Frigram with a large coverage [12] in the formalism of Interaction Grammars [5] . The originality of the formalism lies in its system of polarities which expresses the resource sensitivity of natural languages and which is used to guide syntactic composition. We present the principles underlying grammar design, highlight its modular architecture and show that the lexicon used is independent of the grammar formalism. We also introduce the “companion property”, and show that it helps to enforce grammar consistency.

Universal Dependency Treebank

Bruno Guillaume participates with Marie-Catherine de Marneffe to the production of the French sub-corpus of the Universal Dependency Treebank  [68] . In November 2015, the version 1.2 was released. On the French sub-corpus, Grew was used to detect inconsistency and to correct automatically systematic errors.