Section: Research Program
Lattices: algorithms and cryptology
Lattice-based cryptography (LBC) is an utterly promising, attractive (and competitive) research ground in cryptography, thanks to a combination of unmatched properties:
Improved performance. LBC primitives have low asymptotic costs, but remain cumbersome in practice (e.g., for parameters achieving security against computations of up to 2100 bit operations). To address this limitation, a whole branch of LBC has evolved where security relies on the restriction of lattice problems to a family of more structured lattices called ideal lattices. Primitives based on such lattices can have quasi-optimal costs (i.e., quasi-constant amortized complexities), outperforming all contemporary primitives. This asymptotic performance sometimes translates into practice, as exemplified by NTRUEncrypt.
Improved security. First, lattice problems seem to remain hard even for quantum computers. Moreover, the security of most of LBC holds under the assumption that standard lattice problems are hard in the worst case. Oppositely, contemporary cryptography assumes that specific problems are hard with high probability, for some precise input distributions. Many of these problems were artificially introduced for serving as a security foundation of new primitives.
Improved flexibility. The master primitives (encryption, signature) can all be realized based on worst-case (ideal) lattice assumptions. More evolved primitives such as ID-based encryption (where the public key of a recipient can be publicly derived from its identity) and group signatures, that were the playing-ground of pairing-based cryptography (a subfield of elliptic curve cryptography), can also be realized in the LBC framework, although less efficiently and with restricted security properties. More intriguingly, lattices have enabled long-wished-for primitives. The most notable example is homomorphic encryption, enabling computations on encrypted data. It is the appropriate tool to securely outsource computations, and will help overcome the privacy concerns that are slowing down the rise of the cloud.
We work on three directions, detailed now.
All known lattice reduction algorithms follow the same design principle: perform a sequence of small elementary steps transforming a current basis of the input lattice, where these steps are driven by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation of the current basis.
In the short term, we will fully exploit this paradigm, and hopefully lower the cost of reduction algorithms with respect to the lattice dimension. We aim at asymptotically fast algorithms with complexity bounds closer to those of basic and normal form problems (matrix multiplication, Hermite normal form). In the same vein, we plan to investigate the parallelism potential of these algorithms.
Our long term goal is to go beyond the current design paradigm, to reach better trade-offs between run-time and shortness of the output bases. To reach this objective, we first plan to strengthen our understanding of the interplay between lattice reduction and numerical linear algebra (how far can we push the idea of working on approximations of a basis?), to assess the necessity of using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation (e.g., to obtain a weakening of LLL-reduction that would work up to some stage, and save computations), and to determine whether working on generating sets can lead to more efficient algorithms than manipulating bases. We will also study algorithms for finding shortest non-zero vectors in lattices, and in particular look for quantum accelerations.
We will implement and distribute all algorithmic improvements, e.g., within the fplll library. We are interested in high performance lattice reduction computations (see application domains below), in particular in connection with/continuation of the HPAC ANR project (algebraic computing and high performance consortium).
Our long term goal is to demonstrate the superiority of lattice-based cryptography over contemporary public-key cryptographic approaches. For this, we will 1- Strengthen its security foundations, 2- Drastically improve the performance of its primitives, and 3- Show that lattices allow to devise advanced and elaborate primitives.
The practical security foundations will be strengthened by the improved understanding of the limits of lattice reduction algorithms (see above). On the theoretical side, we plan to attack two major open problems: Are ideal lattices (lattices corresponding to ideals in rings of integers of number fields) computationally as hard to handle as arbitrary lattices? What is the quantum hardness of lattice problems?
Lattice-based primitives involve two types of operations: sampling from discrete Gaussian distributions (with lattice supports), and arithmetic in polynomial rings such as with a power of 2. When such polynomials are used (which is the case in all primitives that have the potential to be practical), then the underlying algorithmic problem that is assumed hard involves ideal lattices. This is why it is crucial to precisely understand the hardness of lattice problems for this family. We will work on improving both types of operations, both in software and in hardware, concentrating on values of and providing security. As these problems are very arithmetic in nature, this will naturally be a source of collaboration with the other themes of the AriC team.
Our main objective in terms of cryptographic functionality will be to determine the extent to which lattices can help securing cloud services. For example, is there a way for users to delegate computations on their outsourced dataset while minimizing what the server eventually learns about their data? Can servers compute on encrypted data in an efficiently verifiable manner? Can users retrieve their files and query remote databases anonymously provided they hold appropriate credentials? Lattice-based cryptography is the only approach so far that has allowed to make progress into those directions. We will investigate the practicality of the current constructions, the extension of their properties, and the design of more powerful primitives, such as functional encryption (allowing the recipient to learn only a function of the plaintext message). To achieve these goals, we will in particular focus on cryptographic multilinear maps.
This research axis of AriC is gaining strength thanks to the recruitment of Benoit Libert. We will be particularly interested in the practical and operational impacts, and for this reason we envision a collaboration with an industrial partner.
Diophantine equations. Lattice reduction algorithms can be used to solve diophantine equations, and in particular to find simultaneous rational approximations to real numbers. We plan to investigate the interplay between this algorithmic task, the task of finding integer relations between real numbers, and lattice reduction. A related question is to devise LLL-reduction algorithms that exploit specific shapes of input bases. This will be done within the ANR DynA3S project.
Communications. We will continue our collaboration with Cong Ling (Imperial College) on the use of lattices in communications. We plan to work on the wiretap channel over a fading channel (modeling cell phone communications in a fast moving environment). The current approaches rely on ideal lattices, and we hope to be able to find new approaches thanks to our expertise on them due to their use in lattice-based cryptography. We will also tackle the problem of sampling vectors from Gaussian distributions with lattice support, for a very small standard deviation parameter. This would significantly improve current schemes for communication schemes based on lattices, as well as several cryptographic primitives.
Cryptanalysis of variants of RSA. Lattices have been used extensively to break variants of the RSA encryption scheme, via Coppersmith's method to find small roots of polynomials. We plan to work with Nadia Heninger (U. of Pennsylvania) on improving these attacks, to make them more practical. This is an excellent test case for testing the practicality of LLL-type algorithm. Nadia Heninger has a strong experience in large scale cryptanalysis based on Coppersmith's method (http://smartfacts.cr.yp.to/)