Section: New Results

Lattices: algorithms and cryptology

Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Lattice-Based Accumulators: Logarithmic-Size Ring Signatures and Group Signatures Without Trapdoors

An accumulator is a function that hashes a set of inputs into a short, constant-size string while preserving the ability to efficiently prove the inclusion of a specific input element in the hashed set. It has proved useful in the design of numerous privacy-enhancing protocols, in order to handle revocation or simply prove set membership. In the lattice setting, currently known instantiations of the primitive are based on Merkle trees, which do not interact well with zero-knowledge proofs. In order to efficiently prove the membership of some element in a zero-knowledge manner, the prover has to demonstrate knowledge of a hash chain without revealing it, which is not known to be efficiently possible under well-studied hardness assumptions. In [39], we provide an efficient method of proving such statements using involved extensions of Stern's protocol. Under the Small Integer Solution assumption, we provide zero-knowledge arguments showing possession of a hash chain. As an application, [39] describes new lattice-based group and ring signatures in the random oracle model. In particular, the paper obtains: (i) The first lattice-based ring signatures with logarithmic size in the cardinality of the ring; (ii) The first lattice-based group signature that does not require any GPV trapdoor and thus allows for a much more efficient choice of parameters.

A Lattice-Based Group Signature Scheme with Message-Dependent Opening

Group signatures are an important anonymity primitive allowing users to sign messages while hiding in a crowd. At the same time, signers remain accountable since an authority is capable of de-anonymizing signatures via a process called opening. In many situations, this authority is granted too much power as it can identify the author of any signature. Sakai et al. proposed a flavor of the primitive, called Group Signature with Message-Dependent Opening (GS-MDO), where opening operations are only possible when a separate authority (called “admitter”) has revealed a trapdoor for the corresponding message. So far, all existing GS-MDO constructions rely on bilinear maps, partially because the message-dependent opening functionality inherently implies identity-based encryption. In [40], the team proposes the first GS-MDO candidate based on lattice assumptions. The construction combines the group signature of Ling, Nguyen and Wang (PKC'15) with two layers of identity-based encryption. These components are tied together using suitable zero-knowledge argument systems.

Practical “Signatures with Efficient Protocols” from Simple Assumptions

Digital signatures are perhaps the most important base for authentication and trust relationships in large scale systems. More specifically, various applications of signatures provide privacy and anonymity preserving mechanisms and protocols, and these, in turn, are becoming critical (due to the recently recognized need to protect individuals according to national rules and regulations). A specific type of signatures called “signatures with efficient protocols”, as introduced by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya (CL), efficiently accommodates various basic protocols and extensions like zero-knowledge proofs, signing committed messages, or re-randomizability. These are, in fact, typical operations associated with signatures used in typical anonymity and privacy-preserving scenarios. To date there are no “signatures with efficient protocols” which are based on simple assumptions and truly practical. These two properties assure us a robust primitive: First, simple assumptions are needed for ensuring that this basic primitive is mathematically robust and does not require special ad hoc assumptions that are more risky, imply less efficiency, are more tuned to the protocol itself, and are perhaps less trusted. In the other dimension, efficiency is a must given the anonymity applications of the protocol, since without proper level of efficiency the future adoption of the primitives is always questionable (in spite of their need). In [41], the team presents a new CL-type signature scheme that is re-randomizable under a simple, well-studied, and by now standard, assumption (SXDH). The signature is efficient (built on the recent QA-NIZK constructions), and is, by design, suitable to work in extended contexts that typify privacy settings (like anonymous credentials, group signature, and offline e-cash). The paper demonstrates its power by presenting practical protocols based on it.

Functional Commitment Schemes: From Polynomial Commitments to Pairing-Based Accumulators from Simple Assumptions

In [42], the team formalizes a cryptographic primitive called functional commitment (FC) which can be viewed as a generalization of vector commitments (VCs), polynomial commitments and many other special kinds of commitment schemes. A non-interactive functional commitment allows committing to a message in such a way that the committer has the flexibility of only revealing a function F(M) of the committed message during the opening phase. We provide constructions for the functionality of linear functions, where messages consist of a vectors of n elements over some domain D (e.g., m=(m1,...,mn)Dn) and commitments can later be opened to a specific linear function of the vector coordinates. An opening for a function F:DnR thus generates a witness for the fact that F(m) indeed evaluates to yR. One security requirement is called function binding and requires that no adversary be able to open a commitment to two different evaluations y,y' for the same function F. The paper [42] proposes a construction of functional commitment for linear functions based on constant-size assumptions in composite order groups endowed with a bilinear map. The construction has commitments and openings of constant size (i.e., independent of n or function description) and is perfectly hiding – the underlying message is information theoretically hidden. Our security proofs builds on the Déjà Q framework of Chase and Meiklejohn (Eurocrypt 2014) and its extension by Wee (TCC 2016) to encryption primitives, thus relying on constant-size subgroup decisional assumptions. The paper shows that the FC for linear functions are sufficiently powerful to solve four open problems. They, first, imply polynomial commitments, and, then, give cryptographic accumulators (i.e., an algebraic hash function which makes it possible to efficiently prove that some input belongs to a hashed set). In particular, specializing the new FC construction leads to the first pairing-based polynomial commitments and accumulators for large universes known to achieve security under simple assumptions. We also substantially extend our pairing-based accumulator to handle subset queries which requires a non-trivial extension of the Déjà Q framework.

Fully Secure Functional Encryption for Inner Products, from Standard Assumptions

Functional encryption is a modern public-key paradigm where a master secret key can be used to derive sub-keys SKF associated with certain functions F in such a way that the decryption operation reveals F(M), if M is the encrypted message, and nothing else. Recently, Abdalla et al. gave simple and efficient realizations of the primitive for the computation of linear functions on encrypted data: given an encryption of a vector y over some specified base ring, a secret key SKx for the vector x allows computing x,y. Their technique surprisingly allows for instantiations under standard assumptions, like the hardness of the Decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and Learning-with-Errors (LWE) problems. Their constructions, however, are only proved secure against selective adversaries, which have to declare the challenge messages M0 and M1 at the outset of the game. In [22], we provide constructions that provably achieve security against more realistic adaptive attacks (where the messages M0 and M1 may be chosen in the challenge phase, based on the previously collected information) for the same inner product functionality. The constructions of [22] are obtained from hash proof systems endowed with homomorphic properties over the key space. They are (almost) as efficient as those of Abdalla et al. and rely on the same hardness assumptions. In addition, the paper [22] obtains a solution based on Paillier's composite residuosity assumption, which was an open problem even in the case of selective adversaries. We also propose LWE-based schemes that allow evaluation of inner products modulo a prime p, as opposed to the schemes of Abdalla et al. that are restricted to evaluations of integer inner products of short integer vectors. The paper [22] finally proposes a solution based on Paillier's composite residuosity assumption that enables evaluation of inner products modulo an RSA integer N=pq. The paper [22] demonstrates that the functionality of inner products over a prime field is powerful and can be used to construct bounded collusion FE for all circuits.

Signature Schemes with Efficient Protocols and Dynamic Group Signatures from Lattice Assumptions

A recent line of works – initiated by Gordon, Katz and Vaikuntanathan (Asiacrypt 2010) – gave lattice-based realizations of privacy-preserving protocols allowing users to authenticate while remaining hidden in a crowd. Despite five years of efforts, known constructions remain limited to static populations of users, which cannot be dynamically updated. For example, none of the existing lattice-based group signatures seems easily extendable to the more realistic setting of dynamic groups. In [37], the team provides new tools enabling the design of anonymous authen-tication systems whereby new users can register and obtain credentials at any time. The first contribution of [37] is a signature scheme with efficient protocols, which allows users to obtain a signature on a committed value and subsequently prove knowledge of a signature on a committed message. This construction, which builds on the lattice-based signature of Böhl et al. (Eurocrypt'13), is well-suited to the design of anonymous credentials and dynamic group signatures. As a second technical contribution, [37] provides a simple, round-optimal joining mechanism for introducing new members in a group. This mechanism consists of zero-knowledge arguments allowing registered group members to prove knowledge of a secret short vector of which the corresponding public syndrome was certified by the group manager. This method provides similar advantages to those of structure-preserving signatures in the realm of bilinear groups. Namely, it allows group members to generate their public key on their own without having to prove knowledge of the underlying secret key. This results in a two-round join protocol supporting concurrent enrollments, which can be used in other settings such as group encryption.

Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Matrix-Vector Relations and Lattice-Based Group Encryption

Group encryption (GE) is the natural encryption analogue of group signatures in that it allows verifiably encrypting messages for some anonymous member of a group while providing evidence that the receiver is a properly certified group member. Should the need arise, an opening authority is capable of identifying the receiver of any ciphertext. As introduced by Kiayias, Tsiounis and Yung (Asiacrypt'07), GE is motivated by applications in the context of oblivious retriever storage systems, anonymous third parties and hierarchical group signatures. In [38], we provide the first realization of group encryption under lattice assumptions. The construction of [38] is proved secure in the standard model (assuming interaction in the proving phase) under the Learning-With-Errors (LWE) and Short-Integer-Solution (SIS) assumptions. As a crucial component of our system, [38] describes a new zero-knowledge argument system allowing to demonstrate that a given ciphertext is a valid encryption under some hidden but certified public key, which incurs to prove quadratic statements about LWE relations. Specifically, the protocol of [38] allows arguing knowledge of witnesses consisting of Xqm×, sqn and a small-norm em which underlie a public vector b=X·s+eqm while simultaneously proving that the matrix Xqm×n has been correctly certified.

Efficient Cryptosystems From 2k-th Power Residue Symbols

Goldwasser and Micali (1984) highlighted the importance of randomizing the plaintext for public-key encryption and introduced the notion of semantic security. They also realized a cryptosystem meeting this security notion under the standard complexity assumption of deciding quadratic residuosity modulo a composite number. The Goldwasser-Micali cryptosystem is simple and elegant but is quite wasteful in bandwidth when encrypting large messages. A number of works followed to address this issue and proposed various modifications. In [4], we revisit the original Goldwasser-Micali cryptosystem using 2k-th power residue symbols. The so-obtained cryptosystems appear as a very natural generalization for k2 (the case k=1 corresponds exactly to the Goldwasser-Micali cryptosystem). Advantageously, they are efficient in both bandwidth and speed; in particular, they allow for fast decryption. Further, the cryptosystems described in this paper inherit the useful features of the original cryptosystem (like its homomorphic property) and are shown to be secure under a similar complexity assumption. As a prominent application, the paper [4] describes an efficient lossy trapdoor function based thereon.

Born and raised distributively: Fully distributed non-interactive adaptively-secure threshold signatures with short shares

Threshold cryptography is a fundamental distributed computational paradigm for enhancing the availability and the security of cryptographic public-key schemes. It does it by dividing private keys into n shares handed out to distinct servers. In threshold signature schemes, a set of at least t+1n servers is needed to produce a valid digital signature. Availability is assured by the fact that any subset of t+1 servers can produce a signature when authorized. At the same time, the scheme should remain robust (in the fault tolerance sense) and unforgeable (cryptographically) against up to t corrupted servers; i.e., it adds quorum control to traditional cryptographic services and introduces redundancy. Originally, most practical threshold signatures have a number of demerits: They have been analyzed in a static corruption model (where the set of corrupted servers is fixed at the very beginning of the attack); they require interaction; they assume a trusted dealer in the key generation phase (so that the system is not fully distributed); or they suffer from certain overheads in terms of storage (large share sizes). In [17], we construct practical fully distributed (the private key is born distributed), non-interactive schemes – where the servers can compute their partial signatures without communication with other servers – with adaptive security (i.e., the adversary corrupts servers dynamically based on its full view of the history of the system). The schemes of [17] are very efficient in terms of computation, communication, and scalable storage (with private key shares of size O(1), where certain solutions incur O(n) storage costs at each server). Unlike other adaptively secure schemes, the new schemes [17] are erasure-free (reliable erasure is hard to assure and hard to administer properly in actual systems). To the best of our knowledge, such a fully distributed highly constrained scheme has been an open problem in the area. In particular, and of special interest, is the fact that Pedersen's traditional distributed key generation (DKG) protocol can be safely employed in the initial key generation phase when the system is born although it is well-known not to ensure uniformly distributed public keys. An advantage of this is that this protocol only takes one round optimistically (in the absence of faulty player).

Non-Zero Inner Product Encryption with Short Ciphertexts and Private Keys

In [28], the team describes two constructions of non-zero inner product encryption (NIPE) systems in the public index setting, both having ciphertexts and secret keys of constant size. Both schemes are obtained by tweaking the Boneh-Gentry-Waters broadcast encryption system (Crypto 2005) and are proved selectively secure without random oracles under previously considered assumptions in groups with a bilinear map. Our first realization builds on prime-order bilinear groups and is proved secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Exponent assumption, which is parameterized by the length n of vectors over which the inner product is defined. By moving to composite order bilinear groups, the paper [28] obtains security under static subgroup decision assumptions following the Déjà Q framework of Chase and Meiklejohn (Eurocrypt 2014) and its extension by Wee (TCC 2016). The schemes of [28] are the first NIPE systems to achieve such parameters, even in the selective security setting. Moreover, they are the first proposals to feature optimally short private keys, which only consist of one group element. The prime-order-group realization of [28] is also the first one with a deterministic key generation mechanism.

More Efficient Constructions for Inner-Product Encryptions

In [48], the team describes new constructions for inner product encryption (called IPE1 and IPE2), which are both secure under the eXternal Diffie-Hellman assumption (SXDH) in asymmetric pairing groups. The IPE1 scheme of [48] has constant-size ciphertexts whereas the second one is weakly attribute hiding. The second scheme is derived from the identity-based encryption scheme of Jutla and Roy (Asiacrypt 2013), that was extended from tag-based quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge (QA-NIZK) proofs for linear subspaces of vector spaces over bilinear groups. The verifier common reference string (CRS) in these tag-based systems are split into two parts, that are combined during verification. The paper [48] considers an alternate form of the tag-based QA-NIZK proof with a single verifier CRS that already includes a tag, different from the one defining the language. The verification succeeds as long as the two tags are unequal. Essentially, we embed a two-equation revocation mechanism in the verification. The new QA-NIZK proof system leads to IPE1, a constant-sized ciphertext IPE scheme with very short ciphertexts. Both the IPE schemes are obtained by applying the n-equation revocation technique of Attrapadung and Libert (PKC 2010) to the corresponding identity based encryption schemes and proved secure under SXDH assumption. As an application, the paper [48] shows how the new schemes can be specialized to obtain the first fully secure identity-based broadcast encryption based on SXDH with a trade-off among the public parameters, ciphertext and key sizes, all of them being sub-linear in the maximum number of recipients of a broadcast.

Verifiable Message-Locked Encryption

One of today's main challenge related to cloud storage is to maintain the functionalities and the efficiency of customers' and service providers' usual environments, while protecting the confidentiality of sensitive data. Deduplication is one of those functionalities: it enables cloud storage providers to save a lot of memory by storing only once a file uploaded several times. But classical encryption blocks deduplication. One needs to use a “message-locked encryption” (MLE), which allows the detection of duplicates and the storage of only one encrypted file on the server, which can be decrypted by any owner of the file. However, in most existing scheme, a user can bypass this deduplication protocol. In [27], we provide servers verifiability for MLE schemes: the servers can verify that the ciphertexts are well-formed. This property that we formally define forces a customer to prove that she complied to the deduplication protocol, thus preventing her to deviate from the prescribed functionality of MLE. We call it deduplication consistency. To achieve this deduplication consistency, we provide (i) a generic transformation that applies to any MLE scheme and (ii) an ElGamal-based deduplication-consistent MLE, which is secure in the random oracle model.

Privately Outsourcing Exponentiation to a Single Server: Cryptanalysis and Optimal Constructions

In [29], we address the problem of speeding up group computations in cryptography using a single untrusted computational resource. We analyze the security of an efficient protocol for securely outsourcing multi-exponentiations proposed at ESORICS 2014. We show that this scheme does not achieve the claimed security guarantees and we present several practical polynomial-time attacks on the delegation protocol which allows the untrusted helper to recover part (or the whole) of the device secret inputs. We then provide simple constructions for outsourcing group exponentiations in different settings (e.g. public/secret, fixed/variable bases and public/secret exponents). Finally, we prove that our attacks on the ESORICS 2014 protocol are unavoidable if one wants to use a single untrusted computational resource and to limit the computational cost of the limited device to a constant number of (generic) group operations. In particular, we show that our constructions are actually optimal.