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## Section: Research Program

### Statistical learning: pattern recognition and nonparametric regression

In pattern recognition and statistical learning, also known as machine learning, nearest neighbor (NN) algorithms are amongst the simplest but also very powerful algorithms available. Basically, given a training set of data, i.e. an $N$–sample of i.i.d. object–feature pairs, with real–valued features, the question is how to generalize, that is how to guess the feature associated with any new object. To achieve this, one chooses some integer $k$ smaller than $N$, and takes the mean–value of the $k$ features associated with the $k$ objects that are nearest to the new object, for some given metric.

In general, there is no way to guess exactly the value of the feature associated with the new object, and the minimal error that can be done is that of the Bayes estimator, which cannot be computed by lack of knowledge of the distribution of the object–feature pair, but the Bayes estimator can be useful to characterize the strength of the method. So the best that can be expected is that the NN estimator converges, say when the sample size $N$ grows, to the Bayes estimator. This is what has been proved in great generality by Stone   for the mean square convergence, provided that the object is a finite–dimensional random variable, the feature is a square–integrable random variable, and the ratio $k/N$ goes to 0. Nearest neighbor estimator is not the only local averaging estimator with this property, but it is arguably the simplest.

The asymptotic behavior when the sample size grows is well understood in finite dimension, but the situation is radically different in general infinite dimensional spaces, when the objects to be classified are functions, images, etc.

Nearest neighbor classification in infinite dimension   In finite dimension, the $k$–nearest neighbor classifier is universally consistent, i.e. its probability of error converges to the Bayes risk as $N$ goes to infinity, whatever the joint probability distribution of the pair, provided that the ratio $k/N$ goes to zero. Unfortunately, this result is no longer valid in general metric spaces, and the objective is to find out reasonable sufficient conditions for the weak consistency to hold. Even in finite dimension, there are exotic distances such that the nearest neighbor does not even get closer (in the sense of the distance) to the point of interest, and the state space needs to be complete for the metric, which is the first condition. Some regularity on the regression function is required next. Clearly, continuity is too strong because it is not required in finite dimension, and a weaker form of regularity is assumed. The following consistency result has been obtained: if the metric space is separable and if some Besicovich condition holds, then the nearest neighbor classifier is weakly consistent. Note that the Besicovich condition is always fulfilled in finite dimensional vector spaces (this result is called the Besicovich theorem), and that a counterexample  can be given in an infinite dimensional space with a Gaussian measure (in this case, the nearest neighbor classifier is clearly nonconsistent). Finally, a simple example has been found which verifies the Besicovich condition with a noncontinuous regression function.

Rates of convergence of the functional $k$–nearest neighbor estimator   Motivated by a broad range of potential applications, such as regression on curves, rates of convergence of the $k$–nearest neighbor estimator of the regression function, based on $N$ independent copies of the object–feature pair, have been investigated when the object is in a suitable ball in some functional space. Using compact embedding theory, explicit and general finite sample bounds can be obtained for the expected squared difference between the $k$–nearest neighbor estimator and the Bayes regression function, in a very general setting. The results have also been particularized to classical function spaces such as Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. The rates obtained are genuine nonparametric convergence rates, and up to our knowledge the first of their kind for $k$–nearest neighbor regression.

This topic has produced several theoretical advances ,  in collaboration with Gérard Biau (université Pierre et Marie Curie). A few possible target application domains have been identified in

• the statistical analysis of recommendation systems,

• the design of reduced–order models and analog samplers,

that would be a source of interesting problems.