Section: New Results

Spontaneous Wireless Networks and Internet of Things

internet of things; wireless sensor networks; dissemination; resource management

Platform Design for the Internet of Things

Participants : Emmanuel Baccelli, Cedric Adjih, Oliver Hahm, Francisco Acosta, Hauke Petersen.

Within this activity, we have further developed the platforms we champion for the Internet of Things: the open source operating system RIOT on one hand, and open-access IoT-lab testbeds on the other hand. RIOT now aggregates open source contributions from 130+ people (and counting) from all over the world, coming both from academia and from industry, and received financial backing from top companies including Cisco and Google. We further developed RIOT for low-cost mobile robots and received the Best Demo Award at the ACM EWSN'16 conference for our work on this topic. As steering RIOT community members, we also participated in the prestigious Internet Architecture Board (IAB) workshop on IoT Software Updates, a hot and essential topic for the future of Internet of Things. The year culminated in this domain with the successful organization of the first RIOT Summit in Berlin, where 100+ participants from all over the world, from industry, academia as well as hackers/makers involved in RIOT gathered to discuss various aspects of the future of RIOT and open source IoT software. In addition, 2016, at the site of Saclay, one of the testbeds from FIT IoT-LAB was opened: the platform of Saclay includes more than 300 IoT nodes (175 A8-M3, 12 M3, 120 WSN430, some Arduinos and some SAMR21-xpro). In parallel, the platform from Freie Universitat Berlin also joined the OneLab/FIT IoT-LAB testbed federation.

Energy-Efficient Communication Protocols for the Internet of Things

Participants : Oliver Hahm, Emmanuel Baccelli, Cedric Adjih, Matthias Waehlisch, Thomas Schmidt.

Within this activity, we have designed distributed algorithms providing improved trade-off between content availability and energy efficiency (which plays a crucial role). The approach we developed leverages distributed caching for IoT content, based on an information-centric networking paradigm. We extended the NDN protocol with a variety of caching and replacement strategies, and we analyzed alternative approaches for extending NDN to accommodate such IoT use cases. Based on extensive experiments on real IoT hardware in a network gathering hundreds of nodes, we demonstrate these caching strategies can bring 90% reduction in energy consumption while maintaining IoT content availability above 90%. This work was published in IEEE Globecom'16 workshop on Named Data Networks for Challenged Communication Environments.

We also have designed new mechanisms to jointly exploit ICN communication patterns and dynamically optimize the use of TSCH (Time Slotted Channel Hopping), a wireless link layer technology increasingly popular in the IoT. Through a series of experiments on FIT IoT-LAB interconnecting typical IoT hardware, we find that our proposal is fully robust against wireless interference, and almost halves the energy consumed for transmission when compared to CSMA. Most importantly, our adaptive scheduling prevents the time-slotted MAC layer from sacrificing throughput and delay. Our work on ICN and on TSCH was published at NTMS'16, at ACM ICN'16, and in Proceedings of the IEEE.

Standards for Spontaneous Wireless Networks

Participant : Emmanuel Baccelli.

Within this activity, we have contributed to new network protocol standards for spontaneous wireless networking, applied to ad hoc networks and the Internet of Things. In particular, collaborating with Fraunhofer, we have published RFC 7779, standardizing Directional Airtime Metric (DAT), a new wireless metric standard targeting wireless mesh networks. Furthermore, collaborating with ARM and Sigma Designs, we published RFC 7733, which provides guidance in the configuration and use of protocols from the RPL protocol suite to implement the features required for control in building and home environments. In collaboration with various industrial partners, with have also published a number of other Internet drafts, including an analysis of the characteristics of multi-hop ad hoc wireless communication between interfaces in the context of IP networks, and an analysis of the challenges of information-centric networking in the Internet of Things.

Spatio-Temporal Predictability of Cellular Data Traffic

Participants : Guangshuo Chen, Aline Carneiro Viana, Marco Fiore, Sahar Hoteit, Carlos Sarraute.

The ability to foresee the data traffic activity of subscribers opens new opportunities to reshape mobile network management and services. In this work, we leverage two large-scale real-world datasets collected by a major mobile carrier in Mexico to study how predictable are the cellular data traffic demands generated by individual users. We focus on the predictability of mobile traffic consumption patterns in isolation. Our results show that it is possible to anticipate the individual demand with a typical accuracy of 85%, and reveal that this percentage is consistent across all user types. Despite the heterogeneity in usage patterns of users, we also find a lack of significant variability in predictability when considering demographic factors or different mobility or mobile service usage. We also analyze the joint predictability of the traffic demands and mobility patterns. We find that the two dimensions are correlated, which improves the predictability upper bound to 90%on average. This first work is in submission in an international conference.

Completion of Sparse Call Detail Records for Mobility Analysis

Participants : Guangshuo Chen, Aline Carneiro Viana, Marco Fiore, Sahar Hoteit.

Call Detail Records (CDRs) have been widely used in the last decades for studying different aspects of human mobility. The accuracy of CDRs strongly depends on the user-network interaction frequency: hence, the temporal and spatial sparsity that typically characterize CDR can introduce a bias in the mobility analysis. In this work, we evaluate the bias induced by the use of CDRs for inferring important locations of mobile subscribers, as well as their complete trajectories. Besides, we propose a novel technique for estimating real human trajectories from sparse CDRs. Compared to previous solutions in the literature, our proposed technique reduces the error between real and estimated human trajectories and at the same time shortens the temporal period where users' locations remain undefined. This work has been published as an invited paper at the ACM CHANTS 2016 workshop in conjunction with ACM MobiCom 2016. Related to CDRs, we have also investigated whether the information of user's instantaneous whereabouts provided by CDRs enables us to estimate positions over longer time spans. Our results confirm that CDRs ensure a good estimation of radii of gyration and important locations, yet they lose some location information. Most importantly, we show that temporal completion of CDRs is straightforward and efficient: thanks to the fact that they remain fairly static before and after mobile communication activities, the majority of users' locations over time can be accurately inferred from CDRs. Finally, we observe the importance of user's context, i.e.,of the size of the current network cell, on the quality of the CDR temporal completion. This work is in submission in an international conference. Finally, driven by real-world data across a large population, we propose two approaches as the refinement of the legacy solution, which complete CDR data adaptively according to the information of users and activities. Our proposed methods outperform the legacy solution in terms of the combination of accuracy and temporal coverage. Besides, our work reveals the important factors to the data completion. This paper has been accepted for publication at the IEEE DAWM workshop in conjunction with IEEE Percom 2017.

Completion of Sparse Call Detail Records for Mobility Analysis

Participants : Panagiota Katsikouli, Aline Carneiro Viana, Marco Fiore, Alessandro Nordio, Alberto Tarable.

The increasing usage of smart devices and location-tracking systems has made it possible to study and understand the behaviour of users as well as human mobility at an unprecedented scale. The insights of such studies can help improve many aspects of our everyday lives, from road network infrastructure to mobile network quality of service. Human mobility is repetitive and regular.In addition to our tendency to revisit the same locations, those visits happen with relevant temporal regularity, where each visited location has been assigned with an ID. The daily interaction with our smart devices, such as smartphones, results in collecting fine grained information on our activities and whereabouts. This information can be used to detect and analyze the routinary behaviour of humans but also to discover interests, preferences and hidden patterns of mobility. However, frequent recording of data tends to quickly drain the battery of the smartphone. A natural alternative is to sample the collected data. Maintaining a summary or sample as close to the original collected data as possible is the key challenge. Deciding what constitutes a representative sample depends on the type of information we wish to maintain from the data collected. In this work, we wish to sparsely sample mobility traces of GPS data with the goal to reconstruct the movement of the users both in space and time at the desired granularity. An ideal sample would allow us to reconstruct the traces in such a way that we preserve the frequency of visits and the time spent to the various locations. Therefore, the problem we tackle here is to sparsely sample the mobility trace of a user with the goal to reconstruct her complete trace in space and time. This is an on-going work and will be submitted to an international conference in the next months.