Section: Application Domains
Besides the surgery training and planning, another major need from clinicians is surgical guidance. While the practician is performing the operation, a guidance system provides enriched visual feedback. This is especially useful with the emergence of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) where the visual information is often strongly limited. It can be used for example to avoid critical area such as vessels or to highlight the position of a tumour during its resection. In the MIS technique, the clinician does not interact with organs directly as in the open surgery, but manipulates instruments inserted through trocars placed in small incisions in the wall of the abdominal cavity. The surgeon can observe these instruments on a display showing a video stream captured by an endoscopic camera inserted through the navel. The main advantage of the method resides in reducing pain and time recovery, in addition to reducing bleeding and risks of infection. However, from a surgical standpoint, the procedure is quite complex since the field of view is considerably reduced and the direct manipulation of organs is not possible.