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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: New Results

Smart City and ITS

Participants : Indra Ngurah, Christophe Couturier, Rodrigo Silva, Frédéric Weis, Jean-Marie Bonnin [contact] .

The domain of Smart Cities is still young but it is already a huge market which attract number of companies and researchers. It is also multi-fold as the words "smart city" gather multiple meanings. Among them one of the main responsibilities of a city, is to organisation the transportation of goods and people. In intelligent transportation systems (ITS), ICT technologies have been involved to improve planification and more generally efficiency of journeys within the city. We are interested in the next step where efficiency would be improved locally relying on local interactions between vehicles, infrastructure and people (smartphones).

For the future "autonomous" vehicle are now in the spotlight, since a lot of works has been done in recent years in automotive industry as well as in academic research centers. Such unmanned vehicle could strongly impact the organisation of the transportation in our cities. However, due to the lack of a definition of what is an "autonomous" vehicle it remains still difficult to see how these vehicles will interact with their environment (eg. road, smart city, houses, grid, etc"). From augmented perception to fully cooperative automated vehicle, the autonomy covers various realities in terms of interaction the vehicle relies on. The extended perception relies on communication between the vehicle and surrounding roadside equipments. This help the driving system to build and maintain an accurate view of the environment. But at this first stage the vehicle only uses its own perception to make its decisions. At a second stage, it will take benefits of local interaction with other vehicles through car-to-car communications to elaborate a better view of its environment. Such "cooperative autonomy" does not try to reproduce the human behavior anymore, it strongly rely on communication between vehicles and/or with the infrastructure to make decision and to acquire information on the environment. Part of the decision could be centralized (almost everything for an automatic metro) or coordinated by a roadside component. The decision making could even be fully distributed but this puts high constraints on the communications. Automated vehicles are just an of smart city automated processes that will have to share information within the surrounding to make their decisions.

In the continuation of our previous activities on the SEAS project, we contributed to the specification of the hybrid (ITS-G5 + Cellular) communication architecture of the French field operation test project SCOOP@F. The proposed solution relies on the MobileIP family of standards and the CALM architecture we contributed to standardize at IETF and ISO. On this topic our contribution mainly focussed on bringing concepts from the state of the art to real equipments. This includes the proposal of provisioning mechanisms to automatically configure and update security materials (ie. certificates and pseudonyms) to ensure an acceptable balance between confidentially, non repudiation and privacy. Extending these works on the On Board Unit (OBU) side, Rodrigo Silva's proposed an architecture and a decision making algorithm to optimize the binding of data flows to available networks while cars are moving [2]. In another field of applications, Indra Ngurah proposed a new routing algorithm for Delay Tolerant Application the context of smart cities[7].