Section: Application Domains
Types of Wireless Networks
The EVA team will distinguish between opportunistic communication (which takes advantage of a favorable state) and collaborative communication (several entities collaborate to reach a common objective). Furthermore, determinism can be required to schedule medium access and node activity, and to predict energy consumption.
In the EVA project, we will propose self-adaptive wireless networks whose evolution is based on:
The types of wireless networks encountered in the application domains can be classified in the following categories.
Wireless Sensor and Mesh Networks
Standardization activities at the IETF have defined an “upper stack” allowing low-power mesh networks to be seamlessly integrated in the Internet (6LoWPAN), form multi-hop topologies (RPL), and interact with other devices like regular web servers (CoAP).
Major research challenges in sensor networks are mostly related to (predictable) power conservation and efficient multi-hop routing. Applications such as monitoring of mobile targets, and the generalization of smart phone devices and wearables, have introduced the need for WSN communication protocols to cope with node mobility and intermittent connectivity.
Extending WSN technology to new application spaces (e.g. security, sports, hostile environments) could also assist communication by seamless exchanges of information between individuals, between individuals and machines, or between machines, leading to the Internet of Things.
Deterministic Low-Power Networks
Wired sensor networks have been used for decades to automate production processes in industrial applications, through standards such as HART. Because of the unreliable nature of the wireless medium, a wireless version of such industrial networks was long considered infeasible.
In 2012, the publication of the IEEE 802.15.4e standard triggered a revolutionary trend in low-power mesh networking: merging the performance of industrial networks, with the ease-of-integration of IP-enabled networks. This integration process is spearheaded by the IETF 6TiSCH working group, created in 2013. A 6TiSCH network implements the IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH protocol, as well as IETF standards such as 6LoWPAN, RPL and CoAP. A 6TiSCH network is synchronized, and a communication schedule orchestrates all communication in the network. Deployments of pre-6TiSCH networks have shown that they can achieve over 99.999% end-to-end reliability, and a decade of battery lifetime.
The communication schedule of a 6TiSCH network can be built and maintained using a centralized, distributed, or hybrid scheduling approach. While the mechanisms for managing that schedule are being standardized by the IETF, which scheduling approach to use, and the associated limits in terms of reliability, throughput and power consumption remains entirely open research questions. Contributing to answering these questions is an important research direction for the EVA team.
MANETs and VANETs
In contrast to routing, other domains in MANETs such as medium access, multi-carrier transmission, quality of service, and quality of experience have received less attention. The establishment of research contracts for EVA in the field of MANETs is expected to remain substantial. MANETs will remain a key application domain for EVA with users such as the military, firefighters, emergency services and NGOs.
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are arguably one of the most promising applications for MANETs. These networks primarily aim at improving road safety. Radio spectrum has been ring-fenced for VANETs worldwide, especially for safety applications. International standardization bodies are working on building efficient standards to govern vehicle-to-vehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication.
Cellular and Device-to-Device Networks
We propose to initially focus this activity on spectrum sensing. For efficient spectrum sensing, the first step is to discover the links (sub-carriers) on which nodes may initiate communications. In Device-to-Device (D2D) networks, one difficulty is scalability.
For link sensing, we will study and design new random access schemes for D2D networks, starting from active signaling. This will assume the availability of a control channel devoted to D2D neighbor discovery. It is therefore naturally coupled with cognitive radio algorithms (allocating such resources): coordination of link discovery through eNode-B information exchanges can yield further spectrum usage optimization.