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  • The Inria's Research Teams produce an annual Activity Report presenting their activities and their results of the year. These reports include the team members, the scientific program, the software developed by the team and the new results of the year. The report also describes the grants, contracts and the activities of dissemination and teaching. Finally, the report gives the list of publications of the year.

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Section: Research Program

Fast and Faithful Performance Prediction of Very Large Systems

Participants : Vincent Danjean, Bruno Gaujal, Arnaud Legrand, Florence Perronnin, Jean-Marc Vincent.

Evaluating the scalability, robustness, energy consumption and performance of large infrastructures such as exascale platforms and clouds raises severe methodological challenges. The complexity of such platforms mandates empirical evaluation but direct experimentation via an application deployment on a real-world testbed is often limited by the few platforms available at hand and is even sometimes impossible (cost, access, early stages of the infrastructure design, ...). Unlike direct experimentation via an application deployment on a real-world testbed, simulation enables fully repeatable and configurable experiments that can often be conducted quickly for arbitrary hypothetical scenarios. In spite of these promises, current simulation practice is often not conducive to obtaining scientifically sound results. To date, most simulation results in the parallel and distributed computing literature are obtained with simulators that are ad hoc, unavailable, undocumented, and/or no longer maintained. For instance, Naicken et al. [49] point out that out of 125 recent papers they surveyed that study peer-to-peer systems, 52% use simulation and mention a simulator, but 72% of them use a custom simulator. As a result, most published simulation results build on throw-away (short-lived and non validated) simulators that are specifically designed for a particular study, which prevents other researchers from building upon it. There is thus a strong need for recognized simulation frameworks by which simulation results can be reproduced, further analyzed and improved.

The SimGrid simulation toolkit [61], whose development is partially supported by POLARIS, is specifically designed for studying large scale distributed computing systems. It has already been successfully used for simulation of grid, volunteer computing, HPC, cloud infrastructures and we have constantly invested on the software quality, the scalability [53] and the validity of the underlying network models [51], [98]. Many simulators of MPI applications have been developed by renowned HPC groups (e.g., at SDSC [96], BSC [47], UIUC [104], Sandia Nat. Lab. [99], ORNL [60] or ETH Zürich [76] for the most prominent ones). Yet, to scale most of them build on restrictive network and application modeling assumptions that make them difficult to extend to more complex architectures and to applications that do not solely build on the MPI API. Furthermore, simplistic modeling assumptions generally prevent to faithfully predict execution times, which limits the use of simulation to indication of gross trends at best. Our goal is to improve the quality of SimGrid to the point where it can be used effectively on a daily basis by practitioners to reproduce the dynamic of real HPC systems.

We also develop another simulation software, PSI (Perfect SImulator) [65], [58], dedicated to the simulation of very large systems that can be modeled as Markov chains. PSI provides a set of simulation kernels for Markov chains specified by events. It allows one to sample stationary distributions through the Perfect Sampling method (pioneered by Propp and Wilson [88]) or simply to generate trajectories with a forward Monte-Carlo simulation leveraging time parallel simulation (pioneered by Fujimoto [69], Lin and Lazowska [80]). One of the strength of the PSI framework is its expressiveness that allows us to easily study networks with finite and infinite capacity queues [59]. Although PSI already allows to simulate very large and complex systems, our main objective is to push its scalability even further and improve its capabilities by one or several orders of magnitude.