Keywords
Computer Science and Digital Science
 A3.1.1. Modeling, representation
 A3.1.4. Uncertain data
 A3.3.2. Data mining
 A3.3.3. Big data analysis
 A3.4.1. Supervised learning
 A3.4.2. Unsupervised learning
 A3.4.4. Optimization and learning
 A3.4.5. Bayesian methods
 A3.4.7. Kernel methods
 A5.3.3. Pattern recognition
 A5.9.2. Estimation, modeling
 A6.2. Scientific computing, Numerical Analysis & Optimization
 A6.2.3. Probabilistic methods
 A6.2.4. Statistical methods
 A6.3. Computationdata interaction
 A6.3.1. Inverse problems
 A6.3.3. Data processing
 A6.3.5. Uncertainty Quantification
 A9.2. Machine learning
 A9.3. Signal analysis
Other Research Topics and Application Domains
 B1.2.1. Understanding and simulation of the brain and the nervous system
 B2.6.1. Brain imaging
 B3.3. Geosciences
 B3.4.1. Natural risks
 B3.4.2. Industrial risks and waste
 B3.5. Agronomy
 B5.1. Factory of the future
 B9.5.6. Data science
 B9.11.1. Environmental risks
1 Team members, visitors, external collaborators
Research Scientists
 Florence Forbes [Team leader, INRIA, Senior Researcher, HDR]
 Sophie Achard [CNRS, Senior Researcher, HDR]
 Julyan Arbel [INRIA, Researcher, HDR]
 Pedro Luiz Coelho Rodrigues [INRIA, Researcher]
 Stephane Girard [INRIA, Senior Researcher, HDR]
 Pierre Wolinski [UNIV OXFORD, Starting Research Position, from Oct 2022]
Faculty Members
 JeanBaptiste Durand [GRENOBLE INP, Associate Professor]
 Olivier Francois [GRENOBLE INP, Professor]
PostDoctoral Fellows
 Jhouben Janyk Cuesta Ramirez [Inria, from Oct 2022]
 Trung Tin Nguyen [Inria]
 Konstantinos Pitas [INRIA, from Mar 2022]
PhD Students
 Louise Alamichel [UGA]
 Yuchen Bai [UGA]
 Daria Bystrova [UGA]
 Lucrezia Carboni [UGA]
 Jacopo Iollo [INRIA]
 Benjamin Lambert [PIXYL, from Feb 2022]
 Hana Lbath [UGA]
 Minh Le [Invensense, CIFRE]
 Theo Moins [INRIA]
 Geoffroy Oudoumanessah [INSERM, from Oct 2022]
Technical Staff
 Pascal Dkengne Sielenou [INRIA, Engineer]
Interns and Apprentices
 Geoffroy Oudoumanessah [INSERM, from Apr 2022 until Sep 2022]
Administrative Assistant
 Marion Ponsot [INRIA]
Visiting Scientists
 Filippo Ascolani [Bocconi University, from Nov 2022 until Nov 2022]
 Alberto Gonzales Sanz [University of Toulouse, from Nov 2022]
 Hien Nguyen [UNIV QUEENSLAND, from Jul 2022]
 Kai Qin [UNIV SWINBURNE, from Jul 2022]
External Collaborator
 Jonathan El Methni [UNIV PARIS]
2 Overall objectives
The statify team focuses on statistics. Statistics can be defined as a science of variation where the main question is how to acquire knowledge in the face of variation. In the past, statistics were seen as an opportunity to play in various backyards. Today, the statistician sees his own backyard invaded by data scientists, machine learners and other computer scientists of all kinds. Everyone wants to do data analysis and some (but not all) do it very well. Generally, data analysis algorithms and associated network architectures are empirically validated using domainspecific datasets and data challenges. While winning such challenges is certainly rewarding, statistical validation lies on more fundamentally grounded bases and raises interesting theoretical, algorithmic and practical insights. Statistical questions can be converted to probability questions by the use of probability models. Once certain assumptions about the mechanisms generating the data are made, statistical questions can be answered using probability theory. However, the proper formulation and checking of these probability models is just as important, or even more important, than the subsequent analysis of the problem using these models. The first question is then how to formulate and evaluate probabilistic models for the problem at hand. The second question is how to obtain answers after a certain model has been assumed. This latter task can be more a matter of applied probability theory, and in practice, contains optimization and numerical analysis.
The statify team aims at bringing strengths, at a time when the number of solicitations received by statisticians increases considerably because of the successive waves of big data, data science and deep learning. The difficulty is to back up our approaches with reliable mathematics while what we have is often only empirical observations that we are not able to explain. Guiding data analysis with statistical justification is a challenge in itself. statify has the ambition to play a role in this task and to provide answers to questions about the appropriate usage of statistics.
Often statistical assumptions do not hold. Under what conditions then can we use statistical methods to obtain reliable knowledge? These conditions are rarely the natural state of complex systems. The central motivation of statify is to establish the conditions under which statistical assumptions and associated inference procedures approximately hold and become reliable.
However, as George Box said "Statisticians and artists both suffer from being too easily in love with their models". To moderate this risk, we choose to develop, in the team, expertise from different statistical domains to offer different solutions to attack a variety of problems. This is possible because these domains share the same mathematical food chain, from probability and measure theory to statistical modeling, inference and data analysis.
Our goal is to exploit methodological resources from statistics and machine learning to develop models that handle variability and that scale to high dimensional data while maintaining our ability to assess their correctness, typically the uncertainty associated with the provided solutions. To reach this goal, the team offers a unique range of expertise in statistics, combining probabilistic graphical models and mixture models to analyze structured data, Bayesian analysis to model knowledge and regularize illposed problems, nonparametric statistics, risk modeling and extreme value theory to face the lack, or impossibility, of precise modeling information and data. In the team, this expertise is organized to target five key challenges:

1.
Models for high dimensional, multimodal, heterogeneous data;

2.
Spatial (structured) data science;

3.
Scalable Bayesian models and procedures;

4.
Understanding mathematical properties of statistical and machine learning methods;

5.
The big problem of small data.
The first two challenges address sources of complexity coming from data, namely, the fact that observations can be: 1) high dimensional, collected from multiple sensors in varying conditions i.e. multimodal and heterogeneous and 2) interdependent with a known structure between variables or with unknown interactions to be discovered. The other three challenges focus on providing reliable and interpretable models: 3) making the Bayesian approach scalable to handle large and complex data; 4) quantifying the information processing properties of machine learning methods and 5) allowing to draw reliable conclusions from datasets that are too small or not large enough to be used for training machine/deep learning methods.
These challenges rely on our four research axes:

1.
Models for graphs and networks;

2.
Dimension reduction and latent variable modeling;

3.
Bayesian modeling;

4.
Modeling and quantifying extreme risk.
In terms of applied work, we will target highimpact applications in neuroimaging, environmental and earth sciences.
3 Research program
3.1 Mixture models
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes, Stephane Girard, Julyan Arbel, Olivier Francois, Daria Bystrova, Giovanni Poggiato, Geoffroy Oudoumanessah, Louise Alamichel.
Keywords: Keywords: mixture of distributions, EM algorithm, missing data, conditional independence, statistical pattern recognition, clustering, unsupervised and partially supervised learning..
In a first approach, we consider statistical parametric models, $\theta $ being the parameter, possibly multidimensional, usually unknown and to be estimated. We consider cases where the data naturally divides into observed data $y=\{{y}_{1},...,{y}_{n}\}$ and unobserved or missing data $z=\{{z}_{1},...,{z}_{n}\}$. The missing data ${z}_{i}$ represents for instance the memberships of one of a set of $K$ alternative categories. The distribution of an observed ${y}_{i}$ can be written as a finite mixture of distributions,
These models are interesting in that they may point out hidden variables responsible for most of the observed variability and so that the observed variables are conditionally independent. Their estimation is often difficult due to the missing data. The ExpectationMaximization (EM) algorithm is a general and now standard approach to maximization of the likelihood in missing data problems. It provides parameter estimation but also values for missing data.
Mixture models correspond to independent ${z}_{i}$'s. They have been increasingly used in statistical pattern recognition. They enable a formal (modelbased) approach to (unsupervised) clustering.
3.2 Graphical and Markov models
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes, Julyan Arbel, Sophie Achard, Olivier Francois, Mariia Vladimirova, Lucrezia Carboni, Hana Lbath, Minhtri Le, Yuchen Bai.
Keywords: Keywords: graphical models, Markov properties, hidden Markov models, clustering, missing data, mixture of distributions, EM algorithm, image analysis, Bayesian inference..
Graphical modelling provides a diagrammatic representation of the dependency structure of a joint probability distribution, in the form of a network or graph depicting the local relations among variables. The graph can have directed or undirected links or edges between the nodes, which represent the individual variables. Associated with the graph are various Markov properties that specify how the graph encodes conditional independence assumptions.
It is the conditional independence assumptions that give graphical models their fundamental modular structure, enabling computation of globally interesting quantities from local specifications. In this way graphical models form an essential basis for our methodologies based on structures.
The graphs can be either directed, e.g. Bayesian Networks, or undirected, e.g. Markov Random Fields. The specificity of Markovian models is that the dependencies between the nodes are limited to the nearest neighbor nodes. The neighborhood definition can vary and be adapted to the problem of interest. When parts of the variables (nodes) are not observed or missing, we refer to these models as Hidden Markov Models (HMM). Hidden Markov chains or hidden Markov fields correspond to cases where the ${z}_{i}$'s in (1) are distributed according to a Markov chain or a Markov field. They are a natural extension of mixture models. They are widely used in signal processing (speech recognition, genome sequence analysis) and in image processing (remote sensing, MRI, etc.). Such models are very flexible in practice and can naturally account for the phenomena to be studied.
Hidden Markov models are very useful in modelling spatial dependencies but these dependencies and the possible existence of hidden variables are also responsible for a typically large amount of computation. It follows that the statistical analysis may not be straightforward. Typical issues are related to the neighborhood structure to be chosen when not dictated by the context and the possible high dimensionality of the observations. This also requires a good understanding of the role of each parameter and methods to tune them depending on the goal in mind. Regarding estimation algorithms, they correspond to an energy minimization problem which is NPhard and usually performed through approximation. We focus on a certain type of methods based on variational approximations and propose effective algorithms which show good performance in practice and for which we also study theoretical properties. We also propose some tools for model selection. Eventually we investigate ways to extend the standard Hidden Markov Field model to increase its modelling power.
3.3 Functional Inference, semi and nonparametric methods
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Daria Bystrova, Giovanni Poggiato, Stephane Girard, Florence Forbes, Pedro Coelho Rodrigues, Pascal Dkengne Sielenou, Meryem Bousebata, Theo Moins, Pierre Wolinski, Sophie Achard.
Keywords: Keywords: dimension reduction, extreme value analysis, functional estimation..
We also consider methods which do not assume a parametric model. The approaches are nonparametric in the sense that they do not require the assumption of a prior model on the unknown quantities. This property is important since, for image applications for instance, it is very difficult to introduce sufficiently general parametric models because of the wide variety of image contents. Projection methods are then a way to decompose the unknown quantity on a set of functions (e.g. wavelets). Kernel methods which rely on smoothing the data using a set of kernels (usually probability distributions) are other examples. Relationships exist between these methods and learning techniques using Support Vector Machine (SVM) as this appears in the context of levelsets estimation (see section 3.3.2). Such nonparametric methods have become the cornerstone when dealing with functional data 87. This is the case, for instance, when observations are curves. They enable us to model the data without a discretization step. More generally, these techniques are of great use for dimension reduction purposes (section 3.3.3). They enable reduction of the dimension of the functional or multivariate data without assumptions on the observations distribution. Semiparametric methods refer to methods that include both parametric and nonparametric aspects. Examples include the Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) method 89 which combines nonparametric regression techniques with parametric dimension reduction aspects. This is also the case in extreme value analysis86, which is based on the modelling of distribution tails (see section 3.3.1). It differs from traditional statistics which focuses on the central part of distributions, i.e. on the most probable events. Extreme value theory shows that distribution tails can be modelled by both a functional part and a real parameter, the extreme value index.
3.3.1 Modelling extremal events
Extreme value theory is a branch of statistics dealing with the extreme deviations from the bulk of probability distributions. More specifically, it focuses on the limiting distributions for the minimum or the maximum of a large collection of random observations from the same arbitrary distribution. Let ${X}_{1,n}\le ...\le {X}_{n,n}$ denote $n$ ordered observations from a random variable $X$ representing some quantity of interest. A ${p}_{n}$quantile of $X$ is the value ${x}_{{p}_{n}}$ such that the probability that $X$ is greater than ${x}_{{p}_{n}}$ is ${p}_{n}$, i.e.$P(X>{x}_{{p}_{n}})={p}_{n}$. When ${p}_{n}<1/n$, such a quantile is said to be extreme since it is usually greater than the maximum observation ${X}_{n,n}$.
To estimate such quantiles therefore requires dedicated methods to extrapolate information beyond the observed values of $X$. Those methods are based on Extreme value theory. This kind of issue appeared in hydrology. One objective was to assess risk for highly unusual events, such as 100year floods, starting from flows measured over 50 years. To this end, semiparametric models of the tail are considered:
where both the extremevalue index $\theta >0$ and the function $\ell \left(x\right)$ are unknown. The function $\ell $ is a slowly varying function i.e. such that
for all $t>0$. The function $\ell \left(x\right)$ acts as a nuisance parameter which yields a bias in the classical extremevalue estimators developed so far. Such models are often referred to as heavytail models since the probability of extreme events decreases at a polynomial rate to zero. It may be necessary to refine the model (2,3) by specifying a precise rate of convergence in (3). To this end, a second order condition is introduced involving an additional parameter $\rho \le 0$. The larger $\rho $ is, the slower the convergence in (3) and the more difficult the estimation of extreme quantiles.
More generally, the problems that we address are part of the risk assessment theory. For instance, in reliability, the distributions of interest are included in a semiparametric family whose tails are decreasing exponentially fast. These socalled Weibulltail distributions 8 are defined by their survival distribution function:
Gaussian, gamma, exponential and Weibull distributions, among others, are included in this family. An important part of our work consists in establishing links between models (2) and (4) in order to propose new estimation methods. We also consider the case where the observations were recorded with a covariate information 9. In this case, the extremevalue index and the ${p}_{n}$quantile are functions of the covariate. We propose estimators of these functions by using moving window approaches, nearest neighbor methods, or kernel estimators.
3.3.2 Level sets estimation
Level sets estimation is a recurrent problem in statistics which is linked to outlier detection. In biology, one is interested in estimating reference curves, that is to say curves which bound $90\%$ (for example) of the population. Points outside this bound are considered as outliers compared to the reference population. Level sets estimation can be looked at as a conditional quantile estimation problem which benefits from a nonparametric statistical framework. In particular, boundary estimation, arising in image segmentation as well as in supervised learning, is interpreted as an extreme level set estimation problem. Level sets estimation can also be formulated as a linear programming problem. In this context, estimates are sparse since they involve only a small fraction of the dataset, called the set of support vectors.
3.3.3 Dimension reduction
Our work on high dimensional data requires that we face the curse of dimensionality phenomenon. Indeed, the modelling of high dimensional data requires complex models and thus the estimation of high number of parameters compared to the sample size. In this framework, dimension reduction methods aim at replacing the original variables by a small number of linear combinations with as small as a possible loss of information. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the most widely used method to reduce dimension in data. However, standard linear PCA can be quite inefficient on image data where even simple image distortions can lead to highly nonlinear data. Two directions are investigated. First, nonlinear PCAs can be proposed, leading to semiparametric dimension reduction methods 88. Another field of investigation is to take into account the application goal in the dimension reduction step. One of our approaches is therefore to develop new Gaussian models of high dimensional data for parametric inference 1. Such models can then be used in a Mixtures or Markov framework for classification purposes. Another approach consists in combining dimension reduction, regularization techniques, and regression techniques to improve the Sliced Inverse Regression method 89.
4 Application domains
4.1 Image Analysis
Participants: Florence Forbes, JeanBaptiste Durand, Stephane Girard, Pedro Coelho Rodrigues, Geoffroy Oudoumanessah, Sophie Achard.
As regards applications, several areas of image analysis can be covered using the tools developed in the team. More specifically, in collaboration with team perception, we address various issues in computer vision involving Bayesian modelling and probabilistic clustering techniques. Other applications in medical imaging are natural. We work more specifically on MRI and functional MRI data, in collaboration with the Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience (GIN). We also consider other statistical 2D fields coming from other domains such as remote sensing, in collaboration with the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this context, we worked on hyperspectral and/or multitemporal images. In the context of the "pole de competivité" project IVP, we worked of images of PC Boards.
4.2 Biology, Environment and Medicine
Participants: Florence Forbes, Stephane Girard, JeanBaptiste Durand, Julyan Arbel, Sophie Achard, Pedro Coelho Rodrigues, Olivier Francois, Yuchen Bai, Theo Moins, Daria Bystrova, Meryem Bousebata, Lucrezia Carboni, Hana Lbath.
A third domain of applications concerns biology and medicine. We considered the use of mixture models to identify biomakers. We also investigated statistical tools for the analysis of fluorescence signals in molecular biology. Applications in neurosciences are also considered. In the environmental domain, we considered the modelling of highimpact weather events and the use of hyperspectral data as a new tool for quantitative ecology.
5 Social and environmental responsibility
5.1 Footprint of research activities
The footprint of our research activities has not been assessed yet. Most of the team members have validated the "charte d'écoresposnsabilité" written by a working group from Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann, which should have practical implications in the near future.
5.2 Impact of research results
A lot of our developments are motivated by and target applications in medicine and environmental sciences. As such they have a social impact with a better handling and treatment of patients, in particular with brain diseases or disorders. On the environmental side, our work has an impact on geosciencerelated decision making with e.g. extreme events risk analysis, planetary science studies and tools to assess biodiversity markers. However, how to truly measure and report this impact in practice is another question we have not really addressed yet.
6 Highlights of the year
6.1 New projects
 Australian Research Council Discovery project (202325): F. Forbes is coPI of a recently (Nov. 2022) funded project for 3 years.
 ANR project PEG2 (202226) on Predictive Ecological Genomics: statisfy is involved in this 4year project recently accepted in July 2022. The PI is prof. Olivier Francois who spent 2 years (202122) in the team on a Delegation position.
 Plan de Relance project with GE Healthcare (202224). The topic of the collaboration is related to early anomaly detection of failures in medical transducer manufacturing.
 MIAI: Pedro Rodrigues was awarded 13K euros for his project on Machine Learning for Experimental Data via the IRGA 2022 call for projects.
 MIAI: F. Forbes, JB. Durand and Y. Bai were awarded 4.5K euros for their project on Developing IA for estimating leaf area density area in tropical forests from LiDAR data, Nov. 2022.
 A new collaboration has recently started with the PhD cosupervision of Julien Zhou, involving J. Arbel, P. Gaillard from Inria thoth team, and T. Rahier from Criteo Grenoble. This PhD will address bandit problems from a Bayesian viewpoint.
 ANR project NODAL (20222026) « Networkbased biomarker discovery of neurodegenerative diseases using multimodal connectivity ». Sophie Achard is involved in this projet where the PI is in Rennes Julie Coloigner
 ANR DynaSTI : « modélisation de la dynamique spatiotemporelle de la connectivité fonctionnelle en IRMf de repos. » Sophie Achard is involved in this projet where the PI is in Strasbourg Céline Meillier
6.2 Outstanding papers
A recent work has been accepted in Journal of Machine Learning Research, which is one of the top journals in the domain 13.
6.3 Awards
M. Vladimirova received the best poster award for her work at the BAyesian Young Statisticians Meeting in Université de Montréal, Canada, in June 2223, 2022.
H. Lbath received the student award for her work on Clustedbased interregional correlation estimation presented at 2022 IMS International Conference on Statistics and Data Science (ICSDS) December 1316, 2022, Florence, Italy, 54.
7 New software and platforms
7.1 New software
7.1.1 PlanetGLLiM

Name:
PlanetGLLiM

Keyword:
Inverse problem

Functional Description:
The application implements the GLLiM statistical learning technique in its different variants for the inversion of a physical model of reflectance on spectro(gonio)photometric data. The latter are of two types: 1. laboratory measurements of reflectance spectra acquired according to different illumination and viewing geometries, 2. and 4D spectrophotometric remote sensing products from multiangular CRISM or Pléiades acquisitions.
 URL:
 Publications:

Contact:
Sylvain Douté

Participants:
Florence Forbes, Benoit Kugler, Sami Djouadi, Samuel Heidmann, Stanislaw Borkowski

Partner:
Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble
7.1.2 Kernelo

Name:
KerneloGLLiM

Keywords:
Inverse problem, Clustering, Regression, Gaussian mixture, Python, C++

Scientific Description:
Building a regression model for the purpose of prediction is widely used in all disciplines. A large number of applications consists of learning the association between responses and predictors and focusing on predicting responses for the newly observed samples. In this work, we go beyond simple linear models and focus on predicting lowdimensional responses using highdimensional covariates when the associations between responses and covariates are nonlinear.

Functional Description:
KerneloGLLiM is a Gaussian LocallyLinear Mapping (GLLiM) solver. KerneloGLLiM provides a C++ library and a python module for non linear mapping (non linear regression) using a mixture of regression model and an inverse regression strategy. The methods include the GLLiM model (Deleforge et al (2015) ) based on Gaussian mixtures.
 URL:
 Publications:

Contact:
Florence Forbes

Participants:
Florence Forbes, Benoit Kugler, Sami Djouadi, Samuel Heidmann, Stanislaw Borkowski

Partner:
Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble
8 New results
8.1 Mixture models
8.1.1 An online MinorizationMaximization algorithm
Participants: Florence Forbes.
Joint work with: Hien Nguyen, University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia, Gersende Fort, IMT Toulouse and Olivier Cappé ENS Paris.
Modern statistical and machine learning settings often involve high data volume and data streaming, which require the development of online estimation algorithms. The online ExpectationMaximization (EM) algorithm extends the popular EM algorithm to this setting, via a stochastic approximation approach. We show that an online version of the MinorizationMaximization (MM) algorithm, which includes the online EM algorithm as a special case, can also be constructed in a similar manner. We demonstrate our approach via an application to the logistic regression problem and compare it to existing methods 36.
8.1.2 Global implicit function theorems and the online expectationmaximisation algorithm
Participants: Florence Forbes.
Joint work with: Hien Nguyen, University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
Due to the changing nature of data, online and minibatch variants of EM and EMlike algorithms have become increasingly popular. The consistency of the estimator sequences that are produced by these EM variants often rely on an assumption regarding the continuous differentiability of a parameter update function. In many cases, the parameter update function is often not in closed form and may only be defined implicitly, which makes the verification of the continuous differentiability property difficult. We demonstrate how a global implicit function theorem can be used to verify such properties in the cases of finite mixtures of distributions in the exponential family and more generally when the component specific distribution admits a data augmentation scheme in the exponential family. We demonstrate the use of such a theorem in the case of mixtures of beta distributions, gamma distributions, fullyvisible Boltzmann machines and Student distributions. Via numerical simulations, we provide empirical evidence towards the consistency of the online EM algorithm parameter estimates in such cases 27.
8.1.3 Concentration results for approximate Bayesian computation without identifiability
Participants: Florence Forbes, Julyan Arbel, Trung Tin Nguyen.
Joint work with: Hien Nguyen, University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia.
We study the large sample behaviors of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) posterior measures in situations when the data generating process is dependent on nonidentifiable parameters. In particular, we establish the concentration of posterior measures on sets of arbitrarily small size that contain the equivalence set of the data generative parameter, when the sample size tends to infinity. Our theory also makes weak assumptions regarding the measurement of discrepancy between the data set and simulations, and in particular, does not require the use of summary statistics and is applicable to a broad class of kernelized ABC algorithms. We provide useful illustrations and demonstrations of our theory in practice, and offer a comprehensive assessment of the nature in which our findings complement other results in the literature.
8.1.4 Online EM algorithm for robust clustering
Participants: Florence Forbes, Geoffroy Oudoumanessah.
Joint work with: Hien Nguyen, University of Queensland, Australia and Michel Dojat Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences.
A popular way to approach clustering tasks is via a parametric mixture model. The vast majority of the work on such mixtures has been based on Gaussian mixture models. However, in some applications the tails of Gaussian distributions are shorter than appropriate or parameter estimations are affected by atypical observations (outliers). To address this issue, mixtures of socalled multiple scale Student distributions have been proposed and used for clustering. In contrast to the Gaussian case, no closedform solution exists for such mixtures but tractability is maintained via the use of the expectationmaximisation (EM) algorithm. However, such mixtures require more parameters than the standard Student or Gaussian mixtures and the EM algorithm used to estimate the mixture parameters involves more complex numerical optimizations. Consequently, when the number of samples to be clustered becomes large, applying EM on the whole data set (Batch EM) may become costly both in terms of time and memory requirements. A natural approach to bypass this issue is to consider an online version of the algorithm, that can incorporate the samples incrementally or in mini batches. In this work, we proposed to design a tractable online EM for mixtures of multiple scale Student distributions in order to use it then to detect subtle brain anomalies from MR brain scans for patients suffering from Parkinson disease. The application to Parkinson disease will be carried out jointly with Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience.
8.1.5 A nonasymptotic approach for model selection via penalization in highdimensional mixture of experts models
Participants: Florence Forbes, Trung Tin Nguyen.
Joint work with: Faicel Chamroukhi, University of Caen and Hien Nguyen, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Mixture of experts (MoE) are a popular class of statistical and machine learning models that have gained attention over the years due to their flexibility and efficiency. In this work, we consider Gaussiangated localized MoE (GLoME) and blockdiagonal covariance localized MoE (BLoME) regression models to present nonlinear relationships in heterogeneous data with potential hidden graphstructured interactions between highdimensional predictors. These models pose difficult statistical estimation and model selection questions, both from a computational and theoretical perspective. This paper 84 is devoted to the study of the problem of model selection among a collection of GLoME or BLoME models characterized by the number of mixture components, the complexity of Gaussian mean experts, and the hidden blockdiagonal structures of the covariance matrices, in a penalized maximum likelihood estimation framework. In particular, we establish nonasymptotic risk bounds that take the form of weak oracle inequalities, provided that lower bounds for the penalties hold. The good empirical behavior of our models is then demonstrated on synthetic and real datasets.
8.1.6 Bayesian mixture models (in)consistency for the number of clusters
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Louise Alamichel, Daria Bystrova.
Joint work with: Guillaume Kon Kam King (INRAE).
Bayesian nonparametric mixture models are common for modeling complex data. While these models are wellsuited for density estimation, their application for clustering has some limitations. Recent results proved posterior inconsistency of the number of clusters when the true number of clusters is finite for the Dirichlet process and Pitman–Yor process mixture models. In 68, we extend these results to additional Bayesian nonparametric priors such as Gibbstype processes and finitedimensional representations thereof. The latter include the Dirichlet multinomial process, the recently proposed Pitman–Yor, and normalized generalized gamma multinomial processes. We show that mixture models based on these processes are also inconsistent in the number of clusters and discuss possible solutions. Notably, we show that a postprocessing algorithm introduced for the Dirichlet process can be extended to more general models and provides a consistent method to estimate the number of components.
8.1.7 Joint supervised classification and reconstruction of irregularly sampled satellite image times series
Participants: Alexandre Constantin, Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: Mathieu Fauvel, INRAE
Recent satellite missions have led to a huge amount of earth observation data, most of them being freely available. In such a context, satellite image time series have been used to study land use and land cover information. However, optical time series, like Sentinel2 or Landsat ones, are provided with an irregular time sampling for different spatial locations, and images may contain clouds and shadows. Thus, preprocessing techniques are usually required to properly classify such data. The proposed approach is able to deal with irregular temporal sampling and missing data directly in the classification process. It is based on Gaussian processes and allows to perform jointly the classification of the pixel labels as well as the reconstruction of the pixel time series. The method complexity scales linearly with the number of pixels, making it amenable in large scale scenarios. Experimental classification and reconstruction results show that the method does not compete yet with state of the art classifiers but yields reconstructions that are robust with respect to the presence of undetected clouds or shadows and does not require any temporal preprocessing 16.
8.2 Semi and nonparametric methods
8.2.1 Extreme events and neural networks
Participants: Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: M. Allouche and E. Gobet (CMAP, Ecole Poytechnique)
Feedforward neural networks based on Rectified linear units (ReLU) cannot efficiently approximate quantile functions which are not bounded, especially in the case of heavytailed distributions. We thus propose a new parametrization for the generator of a Generative adversarial network (GAN) adapted to this framework, basing on extremevalue theory. We provide an analysis of the uniform error between the extreme quantile and its GAN approximation. It appears that the rate of convergence of the error is mainly driven by the secondorder parameter of the data distribution. The above results are illustrated on simulated data and real financial data 13.
A similar investigation has been conducted to simulate fractional Brownian motion with ReLU neural networks 12.
In 69, we propose new parametrizations for neural networks in order to estimate extreme quantiles in both nonconditional and conditional heavytailed settings. All proposed neural network estimators feature a bias correction based on an extension of the usual secondorder condition to an arbitrary order. The convergence rate of the uniform error between extreme logquantiles and their neural network approximation is established. The finite sample performances of the nonconditional neural network estimator are compared to other biasreduced extremevalue competitors on simulated data. It is shown that our method outperforms them in difficult heavytailed situations where other estimators almost all fail. Finally, the conditional neural network estimators are implemented to investigate the behaviour of extreme rainfalls as functions of their geographical location in the southern part of France. The results are submitted for publication.
8.2.2 Estimation of extreme risk measures
Participants: Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: J. ElMethni (Univ. Paris Cité), G. Stupfler (Univ. Angers) and A. UsseglioCarleve (Univ. Avignon).
One of the most popular risk measures is the ValueatRisk (VaR) introduced in the 1990's. In statistical terms, the VaR at level $\alpha \in (0,1)$ corresponds to the upper $\alpha $quantile of the loss distribution. Weissman extrapolation device for estimating extreme quantiles (when $\alpha \to 0$) from heavytailed distributions is based on two estimators: an order statistic to estimate an intermediate quantile and an estimator of the tailindex. The common practice is to select the same intermediate sequence for both estimators. In 11, we show how an adapted choice of two different intermediate sequences leads to a reduction of the asymptotic bias associated with the resulting refined Weissman estimator. This new bias reduction method is fully automatic and does not involve the selection of extra parameters. Our approach is compared to other bias reduced estimators of extreme quantiles both on simulated and real data.
The ValueatRisk however suffers from several weaknesses. First, it provides us only with a pointwise information: VaR($\alpha $) does not take into consideration what the loss will be beyond this quantile. Second, random loss variables with lighttailed distributions or heavytailed distributions may have the same ValueatRisk. Finally, ValueatRisk is not a coherent risk measure since it is not subadditive in general. A first coherent alternative risk measure is the Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE), also known as TailValueatRisk, Tail Conditional Expectation or Expected Shortfall in case of a continuous loss distribution. The CTE is defined as the expected loss given that the loss lies above the upper $\alpha $quantile of the loss distribution. This risk measure thus takes into account the whole information contained in the upper tail of the distribution.
Risk measures of a financial position are, from an empirical point of view, mainly based on quantiles. Replacing quantiles with their least squares analogues, called expectiles, has recently received increasing attention 3. The novel expectilebased risk measures satisfy all coherence requirements. Currently available estimators of extreme expectiles are typically biased and hence may show poor finitesample performance even in fairly large samples. In 22, we focus on the construction of biasreduced extreme expectile estimators for heavytailed distributions. The rationale for our construction hinges on a careful investigation of the asymptotic proportionality relationship between extreme expectiles and their quantile counterparts, as well as of the extrapolation formula motivated by the heavytailed context. We accurately quantify and estimate the bias incurred by the use of these relationships when constructing extreme expectile estimators. This motivates the introduction of a class of biasreduced estimators whose asymptotic properties are rigorously shown, and whose finitesample properties are assessed on a simulation study and three samples of real data from economics, insurance and finance.
8.2.3 Conditional extremal events
Participants: Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: G. Stupfler (Univ. Angers) and A. UsseglioCarleve (Univ. Avignon).As explained in Paragraph 8.2.2, expectiles have recently started to be considered as serious candidates to become standard tools in actuarial and financial risk management. However, expectiles and their sample versions do not benefit from a simple explicit form, making their analysis significantly harder than that of quantiles and order statistics. This difficulty is compounded when one wishes to integrate auxiliary information about the phenomenon of interest through a finitedimensional covariate, in which case the problem becomes the estimation of conditional expectiles.
We exploit the fact that the expectiles of a distribution $F$ are in fact the quantiles of another distribution $E$ explicitly linked to $F$, in order to construct nonparametric kernel estimators of extreme conditional expectiles. We analyze the asymptotic properties of our estimators in the context of conditional heavytailed distributions. Applications to simulated data and real insurance data are provided 21. The extension to functional covariates is investigated in 20.
8.2.4 Estimation of multivariate risk measures
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: H. Nguyen, Universityof Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and A. UsseglioCarleve (Univ. Avignon).
Expectiles form a family of risk measures that have recently gained interest over the more common valueatrisk or return levels, primarily due to their capability to be determined by the probabilities of tail values and magnitudes of realisations at once. However, a prevalent and ongoing challenge of expectile inference is the problem of uncertainty quantification, which is especially critical in sensitive applications, such as in medical, environmental or engineering tasks. In 14, we address this issue by developing a novel distribution, termed the multivariate expectilebased distribution (MED), that possesses an expectile as a closedform parameter. Desirable properties of the distribution, such as logconcavity, make it an excellent fitting distribution in multivariate applications. Maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian inference algorithms are described. Simulated examples and applications to expectile and mode estimation illustrate the usefulness of the MED for uncertainty quantification.
8.2.5 Dimension reduction for extremes
Participants: Meryem Bousebata, Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: G. Enjolras (CERAG).
In the context of the PhD thesis of Meryem Bousebata, we propose a new approach, called ExtremePLS, for dimension reduction in regression and adapted to distribution tails. The objective is to find linear combinations of predictors that best explain the extreme values of the response variable in a nonlinear inverse regression model. The asymptotic normality of the ExtremePLS estimator is established in the singleindex framework and under mild assumptions. The performance of the method is assessed on simulated data. A statistical analysis of French farm income data, considering extreme cereal yields, is provided as an illustration 15.
8.2.6 Bayesian inference for extreme values
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Theo Moins, Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: A. Dutfoy (EDF R&D).
Combining extreme value theory with Bayesian methods offers several advantages, such as a quantification of uncertainty on parameter estimation or the ability to study irregular models that cannot be handled by frequentist statistics. However, it comes with many options that are left to the user concerning model building, computational algorithms, and even inference itself. Among them, the parameterization of the model induces a geometry that can alter the efficiency of computational algorithms, in addition to making calculations involved. In 75, we focus on the Poisson process characterization of extremes and outline two key benefits of an orthogonal parameterization addressing both issues. First, several diagnostics show that Markov chain Monte Carlo convergence is improved compared with the original parameterization. Second, orthogonalization also helps deriving Jeffreys and penalized complexity priors, and establishing posterior propriety. The analysis is supported by simulations, and our framework is then applied to extreme level estimation on river flow data. The results are submitted for publication.
8.2.7 Diagnosing convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Theo Moins, Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: A. Dutfoy (EDF R&D).
Diagnosing convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is crucial in Bayesian analysis. Among the most popular methods, the potential scale reduction factor (commonly named $\widehat{R}$) is an indicator that monitors the convergence of output chains to a stationary distribution, based on a comparison of the between and withinvariance of the chains. Several improvements have been suggested since its introduction in the 90'ss. We analyse some properties of the theoretical value $R$ associated to $\widehat{R}$ in the case of a localized version that focuses on quantiles of the distribution. This leads to proposing a new indicator, which is shown to allow both for localizing the MCMC convergence in different quantiles of the distribution, and at the same time for handling some convergence issues not detected by other $\widehat{R}$ versions. This work is submitted for publication 74.
8.2.8 Dimension reduction with Sliced Inverse Regression
Participants: Stephane Girard.
Joint work with: H. Lorenzo and J. Saracco (Inria Bordeaux SudOuest).
Since its introduction in the early 90's, the Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) methodology has evolved adapting to increasingly complex data sets in contexts combining linear dimension reduction with non linear regression. The assumption of dependence of the response variable with respect to only a few linear combinations of the covariates makes it appealing for many computational and real data application aspects. In 19, we propose an overview of the most active research directions in SIR modeling from multivariate regression models to regularization and variable selection.
8.2.9 Latent factor models: a tool for dimension reduction in joint species distribution models
Participant: Julyan Arbel, Daria Bystrova, Giovanni Poggiato.
Joint work with: Wilfried Thuiller, LECA  Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine.
We investigate modelling species distributions over space and time which is one of the major research topics in both ecology and conservation biology. Joint Species Distribution models (JSDMs) have recently been introduced as a tool to better model community data, by inferring a residual covariance matrix between species, after accounting for species' response to the environment. However, these models are computationally demanding, even when latent factors, a common tool for dimension reduction, are used. To address this issue, previous research proposed to use a Dirichlet process, a Bayesian nonparametric prior, to further reduce model dimension by clustering species in the residual covariance matrix. Here, we built on this approach to include a prior knowledge on the potential number of clusters, and instead used a PitmanYor process to address some critical limitations of the Dirichlet process. We therefore propose a framework that includes prior knowledge in the residual covariance matrix, providing a tool to analyze clusters of species that share the same residual associations with respect to other species. We applied our methodology to a case study of plant communities in a protected area of the French Alps (the Bauges Regional Park), and demonstrated that our extensions improve dimension reduction and reveal additional information from the residual covariance matrix, notably showing how the estimated clusters are compatible with plant traits, endorsing their importance in shaping communities. A book chapter describing latent factor models as a tool for dimension reduction in joint species distribution models is aslo available.
8.3 Graphical and Markov models
8.3.1 A PreScreening Approach for Faster Bayesian Network Structure Learning
Participants: Florence Forbes.
Joint work with: Thibaud Rahier from Criteo and Sylvain Marié from Schneider.
Learning the structure of Bayesian networks from data is a NPHard problem that involves optimization over a superexponential sized space. Still, in many reallife datasets a number of the arcs contained in the final structure correspond to strongly related pairs of variables and can be identified efficiently with informationtheoretic metrics. In this work, we propose a metaalgorithm to accelerate any existing Bayesian network structure learning method. It contains an additional arc prescreening step allowing to narrow the structure learning task down to a subset of the original variables, thus reducing the overall problem size. We conduct extensive experiments on both public benchmarks and private industrial datasets, showing that this approach enables a significant decrease in computational time and graph complexity for little to no decrease in performance score 37.
8.3.2 Trustworthy clinical AI solutions: a unified review of uncertainty quantification in deep learning models for medical image analysis.
Participants: Florence Forbes, Benjamin Lambert.
Joint work with: Senan Doyle, Alan Tucholka from Pixyl and Michel Dojat from Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences.
The full acceptance of Deep Learning (DL) models in the clinical field is rather low with respect to the quantity of highperforming solutions reported in the literature. Particularly, end users are reluctant to rely on the rough predictions of DL models. Uncertainty quantification methods have been proposed in the literature as a potential response to reduce the rough decision provided by the DL black box and thus increase the interpretability and the acceptability of the result by the final user. In this review, we propose an overview of the existing methods to quantify uncertainty associated to DL predictions. We focus on applications to medical image analysis, which present specific challenges due to the high dimensionality of images and their quality variability, as well as constraints associated to reallife clinical routine. We then discuss the evaluation protocols to validate the relevance of uncertainty estimates. Finally, we highlight the open challenges of uncertainty quantification in the medical field 72.
8.3.3 Beyond Voxel Prediction Uncertainty: Identifying brain lesions you can trust.
Participants: Florence Forbes, Benjamin Lambert.
Joint work with: Senan Doyle, Alan Tucholka from Pixyl and Michel Dojat from Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences.
Deep neural networks have become the goldstandard approach for the automated segmentation of 3D medical images. Their full acceptance by clinicians remains however hampered by the lack of intelligible uncertainty assessment of the provided results. Most approaches to quantify their uncertainty, such as the popular Monte Carlo dropout, restrict to some measure of uncertainty in prediction at the voxel level. In addition not to be clearly related to genuine medical uncertainty, this is not clinically satisfying as most objects of interest (e.g. brain lesions) are made of groups of voxels whose overall relevance may not simply reduce to the sum or mean of their individual uncertainties. In this work, we propose to go beyond voxelwise assessment using an innovative Graph Neural Network approach, trained from the outputs of a Monte Carlo dropout model. This network allows the fusion of three estimators of voxel uncertainty: entropy, variance, and model's confidence; and can be applied to any lesion, regardless of its shape or size. We demonstrate the superiority of our approach for uncertainty estimate on a task of Multiple Sclerosis lesions segmentation 35.
8.3.4 MultiScale Evaluation of Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Deep Learning based MRI Segmentation.
Participants: Florence Forbes, Benjamin Lambert.
Joint work with: Senan Doyle, Alan Tucholka from Pixyl and Michel Dojat from Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences.
Deep Learning (DL) techniques have become the gold standard for biomedical image segmentation. Although extensively used, they tend to be considered as blackboxes, preventing their full acceptance in clinical routine. This opacity is partly due to the inability of neural networks to express the uncertainty in their predictions. In recent years, tremendous work has been carried out to alleviate this limitation and develop models that know when they don't know 1. In this work, we propose an indepth evaluation of 3 stateoftheart approaches to quantify uncertainty attached to DL predictions : Monte Carlo Dropout, Deep Ensemble, and Heteroscedastic network. We performed a multiscale analysis of these techniques by evaluating uncertainty estimates at the voxel, lesion and image levels. We illustrate this comparison on an automatic segmentation task to detect WhiteMatter Hyperintensities (WMH) from T2weighted FLAIR MRI sequences of multiple sclerosis patients 56.
8.3.5 Improving Uncertaintybased OutofDistribution detection for medical image segmentation .
Participants: Florence Forbes, Benjamin Lambert.
Joint work with: Senan Doyle, Alan Tucholka from Pixyl and Michel Dojat from Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences.
Deep Learning models are easily disturbed by variations in the input images that were not seen during training, resulting in unpredictable behaviours. Such OutofDistribution (OOD) images represent a significant challenge in the context of medical image analysis, where the range of possible abnormalities is extremely wide, including artifacts, unseen pathologies, or different imaging protocols. In this work, we evaluate various uncertainty frameworks to detect OOD inputs in the context of Multiple Sclerosis lesions segmentation. By implementing a comprehensive evaluation scheme including 14 sources of OOD of various nature and strength, we show that methods relying on the predictive uncertainty of binary segmentation models often fails in detecting outlying inputs. On the contrary, learning to segment anatomical labels alongside lesions highly improves the ability to detect OOD inputs.
8.3.6 Brain subtle anomaly detection based on AutoEncoders latent space analysis: Application to de novo Parkinson patients
Participants: Florence Forbes, Geoffroy Oudoumanessah.
Joint work with: Michel Dojat from Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Carole Lartizien, Nicolas Pinon, Robin Trombetta from Creatis.
Neural networkbased anomaly detection remains challenging in clinical applications with little or no supervised information and subtle anomalies such as hardly visible brain lesions. Among unsupervised methods, patchbased autoencoders with their efficient representation power provided by their latent space, have shown good results for visible lesion detection. However, the commonly used reconstruction error criterion may limit their performance when facing less obvious lesions. In this work, we design two alternative detection criteria. They are derived from multivariate analysis and can more directly capture information from latent space representations. Their performance compares favorably with two additional supervised learning methods, on a difficult de novo Parkinson Disease (PD) classification task.
8.3.7 Bayesian nonparametric models for hidden Markov random fields on count variables and application to traffic accidents
Participants: Julyan Arbel, JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes.
Joint work with: Hien Nguyen from University of Queensland Brisbane Australia and Fatoumata Dama, Laboratoire des Sciences du Numérique de Nantes, France
Hidden Markov random fields (HMRFs) have been widely used in image segmentation and more generally, for clustering of data indexed by graphs. Dependent hidden variables (states) represent the cluster identities and determine their interpretations. Dependencies between state variables are induced by the notion of neighborhood in the graph. A difficult and crucial problem in HMRFs is the identification of the number of possible states $K$. Recently, selection methods based on Bayesian non parametric priors (Dirichlet processes) have been developed. They do not assume that $K$ is bounded a priori, thus allowing its adaptive selection with respect to the quantity of available data and avoiding costly systematic estimation and comparison of models with different fixed values for $K$. Our previous work 90 has focused on Bayesian nonparametric priors for HMRFs and continuous, Gaussian observations. In this work, we consider extensions to nonGaussian observed data. A first case is discrete data, typically issued from counts. A second is exponentialdistributed data. We defined and implemented Bayesian nonparametric models for HMRFs with Poisson and exponentialdistributed observations. Inference is achieved by Variational Bayesian Expectation Maximization (VBEM).
We proposed an application of the discretedata model to a new risk mapping model for traffic accidents in the region of Victoria, Australia 17. The partition into regions using labels yielded by HMRFs was interpreted using covariates, which showed a good discrimination with regard to labels.
As a perspective, Bayesian nonparametric models for hidden Markov random fields could be extended to nonPoissonian models (particularly to account for zeroinflated and over/underdispersed cases of application) and to regression models.Further perspectives of this work include the improvement of the convergence in the VBEM algorithm, since however the KL divergence between the posterior distribution and its approximation converges, the sequence of optimizing parameters is shown to diverge in our current approach.
8.3.8 Hidden Markov models for the analysis of eye movements
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Sophie Achard.
Joint work with: Anne GuérinDugué (GIPSAlab) and Benoit Lemaire (Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition)
This research theme is supported by a LabEx PERSYVALLab projectteam grant.
In the last years, GIPSAlab has developed computational models of information search in weblike materials, using data from both eyetracking and electroencephalograms (EEGs). These data were obtained from experiments, in which subjects had to decide whether a text was related or not to a target topic presented to them beforehand. In such tasks, reading process and decision making are closely related. Statistical analysis of such data aims at deciphering underlying dependency structures in these processes. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been used on eyemovement series to infer phases in the reading process that can be interpreted as strategies or steps in the cognitive processes leading to decision. In HMMs, each phase is associated with a state of the Markov chain. The states are observed indirectly though eyemovements. Our approach was inspired by Simola et al. (2008) 91, but we used hidden semiMarkov models for better characterization of phase length distributions (Olivier et al., 2021) 29. The estimated HMM highlighted contrasted reading strategies, with both individual and documentrelated variability. New results were obtained in the standalone analysis of the eyemovements: 1) a statistical comparison between the effects of three types of texts was performed, considering texts either closely related, moderately related or unrelated to the target topic; 2) a characterization of the effects of the distance to trigger words on transition probabilities and 3) highlighting a predominant intraindividual variability in scanpaths.
As a perspective of this work, the segmentation induced by our eyemovement model could be used to obtain a statistical characterization of functional brain connectivity through simultaneous EEG recordings. This should lead to some integrated models coupling EEG and eye movements within one single HMM for better identification of strategies.
The results of this study have been partially included in a dissemination work at Inria Interstice journal. 85.
8.3.9 Estimation of leaf area densities in tropical forests
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes, Yuchen Bai.
Joint work with: Grégoire Vincent, IRD, AMAP, Montpellier, France.
Covering just 7% of the Earth’s land surface, tropical forests play a disproportionate role in the biosphere: they store about 25% of the terrestrial carbon and contribute to over a third of the global terrestrial productivity. They also recycle about a third of the precipitations through evapotranspiration and thus contribute to generate and maintain a humid climate regionally, with positive effects also extending well beyond the tropics. However, the seasonal variability in fluxes between tropical rainforests and atmosphere is still poorly understood. Better understanding the processes underlying flux seasonality in tropical forests is thus critical to improve our predictive ability on global biogeochemical cycles. Leaf area, one key variable controlling water efflux and carbon influx, is poorly characterized. To monitor evolutions of biomass, leaf area density (LAD) or gas exchange, aerial and terrestrial laser scanner (LiDAR) measurements have been frequently used.
The principle is, for different LiDAR shoots assumed as independent, to measure the portions of beam lengths between successive hits. Possible censoring comes from beams not being intercepted within a given voxel. Current approaches aim at connecting LAD to the distribution of beam lengths through some statistical model. Such a simplified model does not currently take into account several effects that may impact either LAD or beam lengths: heterogeneity and dependencies in the vegetation properties in different voxels on the one hand and the nature of hit material on the other hand: wood vs. leaves, leading to biases or deteriorated uncertainty in estimation.
This collaboration, supported by Y. Bai's PhD work, aims at developping machine learning methods to address these issues.Current work is now focusing on 1) Applying 3D point convolution neural network to discriminate wood from leaves 2) Modeling the effect of underdetection of vegetal elements due to gradual loss of laser power through different censoring assumptions and validating these assumptions on simulated and real data sets.
8.3.10 Bayesian neural networks
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Pierre Wolinski, Konstantinos Pitas.
The study of feature propagation at initialization in neural networks lies at the root of numerous initialization designs. An assumption very commonly made in the field states that the preactivations are Gaussian. Although this convenient Gaussian hypothesis can be justified when the number of neurons per layer tends to infinity, it is challenged by both theoretical and experimental works for finitewidth neural networks. In 79, our major contribution of this work is to construct a family of pairs of activation functions and initialization distributions that ensure that the preactivations remain Gaussian throughout the network's depth, even in narrow neural networks. In the process, we discover a set of constraints that a neural network should fulfill to ensure Gaussian preactivations. Additionally, we provide a critical review of the claims of the Edge of Chaos line of works and build an exact Edge of Chaos analysis. We also propose a unified view on preactivations propagation, encompassing the framework of several wellknown initialization procedures. Finally, our work provides a principled framework for answering the muchdebated question: is it desirable to initialize the training of a neural network whose preactivations are ensured to be Gaussian?
We also investigate the cold posterior effect through the lens of PACBayes generalization bounds. We argue that in the nonasymptotic setting, when the number of training samples is (relatively) small, discussions of the cold posterior effect should take into account that approximate Bayesian inference does not readily provide guarantees of performance on outofsample data. Instead, outofsample error is better described through a generalization bound. In this context, we explore the connections of the ELBO objective from variational inference and the PACBayes objectives. We note that, while the ELBO and PACBayes objectives are similar, the latter objectives naturally contain a temperature parameter $\lambda $ which is not restricted to be $\lambda =1$. For classification tasks, in the case of Laplace approximations to the posterior, we show how this PACBayesian interpretation of the temperature parameter captures important aspects of the cold posterior effect.
8.3.11 Graph comparisons
Participants: Sophie Achard, Lucrezia Carboni.
Joint work with: Michel Dojat from GIN, Univ. Grenoble Alpes
In recent accepted publication, we worked on the notion of graph comparisons. Node role explainability in complex networks is very difficult, yet is crucial in different application domains such as social science, neurosciences or computer science. Many efforts have been made on the quantification of hubs revealing particular nodes in a network using a given structural property. Yet, in several applications, when multiple instances of networks are available and several structural properties appear to be relevant, the identification of node roles remains largely unexplored. Inspired by the node automorphically equivalence relation, we define an equivalence relation on graph's nodes associated with any collection of nodal statistics (i.e. any functions on the node set). This allows us to define new graph global measures, the power coefficient and the orthogonality score to evaluate the collection parsimony and heterogeneity of a given nodal statistics collection. In addition, we introduce a new method based on structural patterns to compare graphs that have the same vertices set. This methods assigns a value to a node to determine its role distinctiveness in a graph family. Extensive numerical results of our method are conducted on both generative graph models and real data concerning human brain functional connectivity. The differences in nodal statistics are shown to be dependent on the underlying graph structure. Comparisons between generative models and real networks combining two different nodal statistics reveal the complexity of human brain functional connectivity with differences at both global and nodal levels. Using a group of 200 healthy controls connectivity networks, our method is able to compute high correspondence scores among the whole population, to detect homotopy, and finally to quantify differences between comatose patients and healthy controls.
8.3.12 Spatiotemporal data
Participants: Sophie Achard, Hana Lbath.
Joint work with: Alex Petersen, Brigham Young University, US and Wendy Meiring, University Santa Barbara California, US
A novel nonparametric estimator of the correlation between regions, or groups of arbitrarily dependent variables, is proposed in the presence of noise. The challenge resides in the fact that both noise and low intraregional correlation lead to inconsistent interregional correlation estimation using classical approaches. While some existing methods handle one of these issues or the other, none tackle both at the same time. To address this problem, we propose a tradeoff between two approaches: correlating regional averages, which is not robust to low average intraregional correlation, and averaging pairwise interregional correlations, which is not robust to high noise. To that end, we project the data onto a space where the Euclidean distance can be used as a proxy for the sample correlation. We then leverage hierarchical clustering to gather together highly correlated variables within each region prior to averaging. We prove our estimator is consistent for an appropriate cutoff height of the dendogram. We also empirically show our approach surpasses popular estimators in terms of quality and provide illustrations on realworld datasets that further demonstrate its usefulness. 54
8.4 Inverse problems
8.4.1 Sequential Bayesian experimental design for inverse problems.
Participants: Florence Forbes, Jacopo Iollo.
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design is a technique that allows practitioners to efficiently make use of limited experimental resources. In the sequential case however, we often have to run from start computationally intensive inference techniques such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or Variational Inference to obtain the current estimate of the posterior. In this study, we show how we can leverage Sequential Monte Carlo Samplers in order to simultaneously estimate the best possible design and the current posterior. This iterative procedure make use of past information in order to avoid to have to run an inference algorithm from start at each iteration. We demonstrate its applicability in a source location inverse problem.
8.4.2 Bayesian nonparametric mixture of experts for highdimensional inverse problems.
Participants: Julyan Arbel, Florence Forbes, Trung Tin Nguyen.
A wide class of problems can be formulated as inverse problems where the goal is to find parameter values that best explain some observed measures. Typical constraints in practice are that relationships between parameters and observations are highly nonlinear, with highdimensional observations and multidimensional correlated parameters. To handle these constraints, we consider probabilistic mixtures of locally linear models, which can be seen as particular instances of mixtures of experts (MoE). We have shown in previous studies that such models had a good approximation ability provided the number of experts was large enough. This contribution is to propose a general scheme to design a tractable Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) MoE model to avoid any commitment to an arbitrary number of experts. A tractable estimation algorithm is designed using a variational approximation and theoretical properties are derived on the predictive distribution and the number of components. Illustrations on simulated and real data show good results in terms of selection and computing time compared to more traditional model selection procedures.
8.4.3 Hierarchical Bayesian models for simulationbased inference
Participants: Pedro Rodrigues, Julia Linhart.
Joint work with: Thomas Moreau and Alexandre Gramfort from Inria Saclay and Gilles Louppe from Université de Liège
Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e. when distinct sets of parameters yield identical observations. This arises in many practical situations, such as when inferring the distance and power of a radio source (is the source close and weak or far and strong?) or when estimating the amplifier gain and underlying brain activity of an electrophysiological experiment. In a recent work, we have proposed the hierarchical neural posterior estimation (HNPE), a novel method for cracking such indeterminacy by exploiting additional information conveyed by an auxiliary set of observations sharing global parameters. This method extends recent developments in simulationbased inference (SBI) based on normalizing flows to Bayesian hierarchical models. We validated HNPE quantitatively on a motivating example amenable to analytical solutions and then applied it to invert a well known nonlinear model from computational neuroscience, using both simulated and real EEG data.
8.4.4 Bayesian inference on a largescale brain simulator
Participants: Pedro Rodrigues.
Joint work with: Nicholas Tolley and Stephanie Jones from Brown University, Alexandre Gramfort from Inria Saclay
The Human Neocortical Neurosolver (HNN) is a framework whose foundation is a cortical column model with cell and circuit level detail designed to connect macroscale signals to meso/microcircuit level phenomena. We apply this model to study the cellular and circuit mechanisms of beta generation using local field potential (LFP) recordings from the nonhuman primate (NHP) motor cortex. To characterize beta producing mechanisms, we employ simulation based inference (SBI) in the HNN modeling tool. This framework leverages machine learning techniques and neural density estimators to characterize the relationship between a large space of model parameters and simulation output. In this setting, Bayesian inference can be applied to models with intractable likelihood functions (Gonçalves 2020, Papamakarios 2021). The main goal of this project is to provide a set of guidelines for scientists that wish to apply simulationbased inference to their neuroscience studies with a largescale simulator such as HNN. This involves developing new methods for extracting summary features, checking the quality of the posterior approximation, etc. This work is mostly carried out by the Ph.D. student Nicholas Tolley from Brown University.
9 Bilateral contracts and grants with industry
9.1 Bilateral contracts with industry
Participants: Florence Forbes, Pedro Luiz Coelho Rodrigues, Stephane Girard, Julyan Arbel.

Plan de Relance project with GE Healthcare (202224).
The topic of the collaboration is related to early anomaly detection of failures in medical transducer manufacturing. The financial support for statify is of 155K euros.

Contract with EDF (20202023).
Julyan Arbel and Stéphane Girard are the advisors of the PhD thesis of Théo Moins founded by EDF. The goal is to investigate sensitivity analysis and extrapolation limits in extremevalue theory Bayesian methods. The financial support for statify is of 150 keuros.

Contract with TDKInvensense (20202023).
Julyan Arbel is the advisor of the PhD thesis of Minh Tri Lê founded by TDKInvensense. The goal is to apply deep learning methods on small size systems, thus investigating compression methods in deep learning. The financial support for Statify is of 150 keuros.

Contract with Phimeca (20212022).
Stéphane Girard is supervising the work of Valentin Pibernus (engineer at Phimeca) funded by a PEPSAMIES2 project and a contract between Statify and Phimeca. The goal is to implement autoassociative models for assessing the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The total financial support for statify is of 50 keuros.

Contract with Valeo (20212022).
Stéphane Girard is supervising the work of Pascal Dkengne Sielenou (engineer at Statify) funded by ca ontract between Statify and Valeo. The goal is to design statistical method for autonomous vehicle data analysis 70. The total financial support for statify is of 50 keuros.
10 Partnerships and cooperations
10.1 International initiatives
10.1.1 Inria associate team not involved in an IIL or an international program
Participants: Florence Forbes, Julyan Arbel, JeanBaptiste Durand, Stephane Girard, Trung Tin Nguyen.
LANDER stands for "Latent Analysis, Adversarial Networks, and DimEnsionality Reduction" and is an associate team with researchers in Australia that has started in 2019. Details can be found at Lander website.
During the year, a number of journal publications have been finalized on subjects directly linked to the project, mixture of expert models and variants related to high dimensional regression, distributions and properties for nonGaussian data, clustering and classification, Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), Bayesian non parametrics and Markov random fields, Expectiles, etc. The corresponding publications and working papers are listed on the website.
All this work served as a basis for a new submission to the Australian Research Council (ARC), which has been recently granted.
10.2 International research visitors
10.2.1 Visits of international scientists
Other international visits to the team
Kai Qin

Status
(Professor)

Institution of origin:
Swinburn University

Country:
Australia

Dates:
July 2022

Context of the visit:
Lander associate team
Hien Duy Nguyen

Status
(Professor)

Institution of origin:
University of Queensland

Country:
Australia

Dates:
July 2022

Context of the visit:
Lander associate team
Filippo Ascolani

Status
(PhD Student)

Institution of origin:
Bocconi University, Milano

Country:
Italy

Dates:
November 2022

Context of the visit:
collaboration
Alberto Gonzales Sanz

Status
(PhD Student)

Institution of origin:
University of Toulouse

Country:
France

Dates:
November 2022

Context of the visit:
collaboration
10.2.2 Visits to international teams
Research stays abroad
Konstantinos Pitas

Visited institution:
Riken

Country:
Japan

Dates:
OctoberNovember 2022

Context of the visit:
BayesDuality ANR project
Hana Lbath

Visited institution:
Brigham Young University

Country:
USA

Dates:
MayJune 2022

Context of the visit:
QFunc ANR project
Sophie Achard

Visited institution:
Brigham Young University

Country:
USA

Dates:
May 2022

Context of the visit:
QFunc ANR project
Florence Forbes

Visited institution:
University of Queensland and Queensland University of Technology

Country:
Australia

Dates:
April 2022

Context of the visit:
Lander associate team
10.3 National initiatives
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes, Julyan Arbel, Sophie Achard, Stephane Girard, Giovanni Poggiato, Pedro Luiz Coelho Rodrigues.
ANR
 statify is involved in the ANR project GAMBAS (20192023) hosted by CIRAD, Montpellier. The project Generating Advances in Modeling Biodiversity And ecosystem Services (GAMBAS) develops statistical improvements and ecological relevance of joint species distribution models. The project supports the PhD thesis of Giovanni Poggiato.
 an ANR project RADIOAIDE (202226) for Radiation induced neurotoxicity assessed by Spatiotemporal modeling and AI after brain radiotherapy coordinated by S.Ancelet from IRSN has been granted for 4 years starting from April 2022. It involves statify, Grenoble Insitute of Neurosciences, Pixyl, ICANS, APHP, ICM and ENS P.Saclay. The available funding for statify is 94K euros.
 ANR project PEG2 (202226) on Predictive Ecological Genomics: statify is involved in this 4year project recently accepted in July 2022. The PI is prof. Olivier Francois who spent 2 years (202122) in the team on a Delegation position.
 Julyan Arbel is coPI of the BayesDuality project launched with a funding of $2.76 millions by Japan JST  French ANR for a total of 5 years starting in October 2021. The goal is to develop a new learning paradigm for Artificial Intelligence that learns like humans in an adaptive, robust, and continuous fashion. On the Japan side the project is led by Mohammad Emtiyaz Khan as the research director, and Kenichi Bannai and Rio Yokota as CoPIs.
 Statify is involved in the 4year ANR project ExtremReg (20192023) hosted by Toulouse University. This research project aims to provide new adapted tools for nonparametric and semiparametric modeling from the perspective of extreme values. Our research program concentrates around three central themes. First, we contribute to the expanding literature on nonregular boundary regression where smoothness and shape constraints are imposed on the regression function and the regression errors are not assumed to be centred, but onesided. Our second aim is to further investigate the study of the modern extreme value theory built on the use of asymmetric least squares instead of traditional quantiles and order statistics. Finally, we explore the lessdiscussed problem of estimating highdimensional, conditional and joint extremes The financial support for Statify is about 15.000 euros.
Grenoble Idex projects
 MIAI, Multidisciplinary Institute in Artificial Intelligence: In the context of the MIAI institute, S. Achard is coPI of a chair (202023) on Toward Robust and Understandable Neuromorphic Systems funding one PhD student and several postdoc fellows.
 MIAI: Pedro Rodrigues was awarded 13K euros for his project on Machine Learning for Experimental Data via the IRGA 2022 call for projects.
 MIAI: F. Forbes, JB. Durand and Y. Bai were awarded 4.5K euros for their project on Developing IA for estimating leaf area density area in tropical forests from LiDAR data, Nov. 2022.
10.3.1 Networks
MSTGA and AIGM INRAE (French National Institute for Agricultural Research) networks: F. Forbes and J.B Durand are members of the INRAE network called AIGM (ex MSTGA) network since 2006, website, on Algorithmic issues for Inference in Graphical Models. It is funded by INRAE MIA and RNSC/ISC Paris. This network gathers researchers from different disciplines. Statify coorganized and hosted 2 of the network meetings in 2008 and 2015 in Grenoble.
11 Dissemination
Participants: JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes, Julyan Arbel, Sophie Achard, Stephane Girard, Pedro Luiz Coelho Rodrigues.
11.1 Promoting scientific activities
11.1.1 Scientific events: organisation
Member of the organizing committees
 F. Forbes is a member of the organizing committee of the MCM2023 14th international conference on MonteCarlo methods and applications.
 F. Forbes is a member of the organizing committee of the 1st French workshop on AI for biomedical imaging IABM2023 and of the scientific committee for the Bayesian autumn school at CIRM in October 2023.
11.1.2 Scientific events: selection
Member of the conference program committees
 Stéphane Girard, Member of the Scientific Program Committee of the 15th International Conference of the ERCIM WG on computational and methodological statistics, London, 2022. He organized an invited session entitled "Machine learning for extremes" and he was chair of a contributed session entitled "Extreme values".
 Julyan Arbel, Member of the scientific committee of the Statistical Methods for Post Genomic Data analysis (SMPGD) meeting, in January 2022.
 Julyan Arbel, Member of the scientific committee of the One World Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) Seminar, from 2020 to 2022.
Reviewer
 Julyan Arbel, Reviewer, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2022.
 Julyan Arbel, Reviewer, Symposium on Advances in Approximate Bayesian Inference (AABI) 2022.
11.1.3 Journal
Member of the editorial boards
 Stéphane Girard, Associate Editor, Revstat  Statistical Journal since 2019.
 Stéphane Girard, Member of the Advisory Board, Dependence Modeling since 2015.
 Stéphane Girard, Associate Editor, Journal of Multivariate Analysis from 2016 to 2022.
 Julyan Arbel, Associate Editor, Bayesian Analysis since 2019.
 Julyan Arbel, Associate Editor, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics since 2019.
 Julyan Arbel, Associate Editor, Statistics & Probability Letters since 2019.
 Julyan Arbel, Associate Editor, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis since 2020.
 Florence Forbes, Associate Editor, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics since 2019.
Reviewer  reviewing activities
 Stéphane Girard, Reviewer, Advances in Water Resources.
 Stéphane Girard, Reviewer, Extremes.
 Stéphane Girard, Reviewer, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis.
 Stéphane Girard, Reviewer, Advances in Data Analysis and Classification.
 Julyan Arbel, Reviewer, Computo.
 Julyan Arbel, Reviewer, Journal of Machine Learning Research.
11.1.4 Invited talks
 F. Forbes, Automatic learning of functional summary statistics for approximate Bayesian computation, O’Bayes 2022  Objective Bayes Methodology Conference, Santa Cruz, United States, September 2022, 46.
 F. Forbes, Learning approaches for Bayesian inverse problems, UGAMcMaster joint workshop 2022, Hamilton, Canada, June 2022, 47.
 F. Forbes, Online Majorization Minimization algorithms, CIRM Workshop on Computational Methods for Unifying Multiple Statistical Analyses (Fusion), Luminy, France, October 2022, 49.
 F. Forbes, Simulation based inference for high dimensional inverse problems: application to magnetic resonance fingerprinting, Colloque Intelligence Artificielle et santé : approches interdisciplinaires 2022, Nantes, France, June 2022, 50.
 A. UsseglioCarleve, S. Girard, G. Stuplfer, Extreme conditional expectile estimation in heavytailed heteroscedastic regression models, Insurance Data Science Conference 2022, Milano, Italy, June 2022.
 S. Achard, Statistical comparisons of spatiotemporal networks, CIRM Workshop on GraphLearn: Machine Learning and Signal Processing on Graphs, Luminy, France, November 2022,
11.1.5 Research administration
 S. Achard, since Nov. 2020, has been elected as the head of Pole MSTIC (with J.P. Jamont,K. Altisen and C. Lescop) at University of Grenoble. Before she was codirector of pole MSTIC since 2017.
 Julyan Arbel, Member of the scientific committee of the Data Science axis of Persyval Labex.
 Julyan Arbel, Board of Directors member of ISBA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, 20222025.
 F. Forbes is a member of the advisory committee of the Helmholtz AI Cooperation Unit since 2019.
 F. Forbes is Scientific Advisor since March 2015 for the Pixyl company.
 F. Forbes and S. Achard are members of the EURASIP Technical Area Committee BISA (Biomedical Image & Signal Analytics) since January 2021 for a 3 years duration.
 J. Arbel has been a member of the Comit´e des Emplois Scientifiques at Inria Grenoble since 2019.
 P. Rodrigues is a member of the Comit´e D´eveloppement Technologique, a committee for evaluating software development projects, at Inria Grenoble since 2021.
 F. Forbes is a member of the Comite d’organisation strategique of Inria Grenoble since 2017.
 F. Forbes was deputy head of science at Inria Grenoble, from Sep. 2021 to Sep. 2022.
11.2 Teaching  Supervision  Juries
11.2.1 Teaching
 Master: Stéphane Girard, Statistique Inférentielle Avancée, 18 ETD, M1 level, Ensimag. GrenobleINP, France.
 Master: Stéphane Girard, Introduction to ExtremeValue Analysis, 18 ETD, M2 level, UnivGrenoble Alpes (UGA), France.
 Master: Julyan Arbel, Bayesian nonparametrics and Bayesian deep learning, Master Mathématiques Apprentissage et Sciences Humaines (M*A*S*H), Université PSL (Paris Sciences & Lettres), 25 ETD.
 Master: Julyan Arbel, Bayesian deep learning, Master Intelligence Artificielle, Systèmes, Données (IASD), Université PSL (Paris Sciences & Lettres), 12 ETD.
 Master, Julyan Arbel, Bayesian machine learning, Master Mathématiques Vision et Apprentissage (MVA), École normale supérieure ParisSaclay, 36 ETD.
 Master, Julyan Arbel, Bayesian statistics, Ensimag Grenoble INP, 27 ETD.
 Master: JeanBaptiste Durand, Statistics and probability, 192H, M1 and M2 levels, Ensimag Grenoble INP, France. Head of the MSIAM M2 program, in charge of the data science track.
 JeanBaptiste Durand is a faculty member at Ensimag, Grenoble INP.
 Sophie Achard M1 course Théorie des graphes et réseaux sociaux, M1 level, MIASHS, Université Grenoble Alpes (UGA), 14 ETD.
11.2.2 Supervision
 Stéphane Girard was cosupervisor of the PhD thesis of Michaël Allouche (with Emmanuel Gobet, Ecole Polytechnique) "Contributions to generative modeling and dictionary learning: Theory and application”, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, defended on December, 2022.
 Stéphane Girard was cosupervisor of the PhD thesis of Meryem Bousebata (with Geoffroy Enjolras, UGA), "Bayesian estimation of extreme risk measures: Implication for the insurance of natural disasters", UGA, defended on March 2022.
 Julyan Arbel was supervisor of the PhD thesis of Mariia Vladimirova, "Bayesian Neural Networks' Distributional Properties", Inria, defended on March 2022.
 PhD in progress: Daria Bystrova, “Joint Species Distribution Modeling: Dimension reduction using Bayesian nonparametric priors”, started on October 2019, Julyan Arbel and Wilfried Thuiller, Université Grenoble Alpes.
 PhD in progress: Giovanni Poggiatto, “Scalable Approaches for Joint Species Distribution Modeling”, started on November 2019, Julyan Arbel and Wilfried Thuiller, Université Grenoble Alpes.
 PhD in progress: Théo Moins "Quantification bayésienne des limites d’extrapolation en statistique des valeurs extrêmes", started on October 2020, Stéphane Girard and Julyan Arbel, Université Grenoble Alpes.
 PhD in progress: Minh Tri Lê, “Constrained signal processing using deep neural networks for MEMs sensors based applications.”, started on September 2020, Julyan Arbel and Etienne de Foras, Université Grenoble Alpes, CIFRE Invensense.
 PhD in progress: Hana Lbath, "Advanced Spatiotemporal Statistical Models for Quantification and Estimation of Functional Connectivity", started in October 2020, supervised by Sophie Achard and Alex Petersen (Brigham Young University, Utah, USA).
 PhD in progress: Lucrezia Carboni, "Graph embedding for brain connectivity", started in October 2020, supervised by Sophie Achard and Michel Dojat (GIN).
 PhD in progress: Louise Alamichel. "Bayesian Nonparametric methods for complex genomic data" Inria, started in October 2021, advised by Julyan Arbel and Guillaume Kon Kam King (INRAE).
 PhD in progress: Julien Zhou. "Learning combinatorial bandit models under privacy constraints" InriaCriteo, started in November 2022, advised by Julyan Arbel, Pierre Gaillard and Thibaud Rahier.
 PhD in progress: MohamedBahi Yahiaoui. "Computation time reduction and efficient uncertainty propagation for fission gas simulation" CEA CadaracheInria, started in October 2021, advised by Julyan Arbel, Loïc Giraldi, Geoffrey Daniel.
 PhD in progress: Yuchen Bai, "Hierarchical Bayesian Modelling of leaf area density from UAVlidar", started in October 2021, supervised by JeanBaptiste Durand, Florence Forbes and Gregoire Vincent (IRD, Montpellier).
 PhD in progress: Julia Linhart, "Simulation based inference with neural networks: applications to computational neuroscience", started in November 2021, supervised by Pedro Rodrigues and Alexandre Gramfort (DR Inria Saclay).
 PhD in progress: Jacopo Iollo, started in January 2022, supervised by F. Forbes, P. Alliez (DR Inria Sophia) and C. Heinkele (Cerema, Strasbourg).
 PhD in progress: Geoffroy Oudoumanessah, started in October 2022, supervised by F. Forbes, C. Lartizien (Creatis, Lyon) and M. Dojat (GIN).
 PhD in progress: Theo Sylvestre, started in October 2022, supervised by F. Forbes and S. Ancelet (IRSN).
 PhD in progress: Benjamin Lambert, started in January 2022, supervised by F. Forbes and M. Dojat (GIN).
11.2.3 Juries
 Stéphane Girard, Member of the PhD thesis committee of Gloria Buritica, "Assessing the time dependence of multivariate extremes for heavy rainfall modeling", Sorbonne Université, May 2022.
 Julyan Arbel, Rapporteur of the PhD thesis of Gabriel Ducrocq, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, France.
 Julyan Arbel, Rapporteur of the PhD thesis of Ioanni Mitro, University College Dublin, Ireland.
 Julyan Arbel, Rapporteur of the PhD thesis of Yuqing Hu, IMT Atlantique & Orange, France.
 Julyan Arbel, Member of the PhD thesis of Meryem Bousebata, Inria Grenoble, France.
 F. Forbes, Member of the PhD thesis of Grégoire Aufort, "Statistique Computationnelle Bayésienne pour l’étude des Distributions Spectrales d’énergie des galaxies", October 2022, University AixMarseille.
 F. Forbes, Reviewer for the Master Thesis of John Davey from Adelaide University, Australia, July 2022.
 F. Forbes, Reviewer for the CSI, midterm examination, for the PhD thesis of Thomas Coudert, GIN, University of Grenoble, October 2022.
11.3 Popularization
11.3.1 Articles and contents
S. Achard and JB. Durand published an illustration of the process of statistical modeling, in the Inria journal for popularization of science (in French). The topic was illustrated through the analysis of eye movements to infer cognitive processes.
12 Scientific production
12.1 Major publications
 1 articleHigh dimensional data clustering.Computational Statistics and Data Analysis522007, 502519
 2 articleBayesian inverse regression for vascular magnetic resonance fingerprinting.IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging407July 2021, 18271837
 3 articleEstimation of Tail Risk based on Extreme Expectiles.Journal of the Royal Statistical Society series B802018, 263292
 4 articleHighDimensional Regression with Gaussian Mixtures and PartiallyLatent Response Variables.Statistics and ComputingFebruary 2014
 5 articleCombining Monte Carlo and Mean field like methods for inference in hidden Markov Random Fields.IEEE trans. Image Processing1632007, 824837
 6 articleSummary statistics and discrepancy measures for ABC via surrogate posteriors.Statistics and Computing32852022
 7 articleA new family of multivariate heavytailed distributions with variable marginal amounts of tailweights: Application to robust clustering.Statistics and Computing246November 2014, 971984
 8 articleA Hill type estimate of the Weibull tailcoefficient.Communication in Statistics  Theory and Methods3322004, 205234
 9 articleExtreme Conditional Expectile Estimation in HeavyTailed Heteroscedastic Regression Models.Annals of Statistics496December 2021, 33583382
 10 articleBayesian nonparametric priors for hidden Markov random fields.Statistics and Computing302020, 10151035
12.2 Publications of the year
International journals
 11 articleA refined Weissman estimator for extreme quantiles.Extremes2022
 12 articleA generative model for fBm with deep ReLU neural networks.Journal of Complexity73December 2022, 101667
 13 articleEVGAN: Simulation of extreme events with ReLU neural networks.Journal of Machine Learning Research231502022, 139
 14 articleMultivariate expectilebased distribution: properties, Bayesian inference, and applications.Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference2252023, 146170
 15 articleExtreme Partial LeastSquares.Journal of Multivariate Analysis1942023, 105101
 16 articleMixture of multivariate Gaussian processes for classification of irregularly sampled satellite image timeseries.Statistics and Computing322022, 79
 17 articleBayesian nonparametric spatial prior for traffic crash risk mapping: a case study of Victoria, Australia.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics642June 2022, 171204
 18 articleSummary statistics and discrepancy measures for ABC via surrogate posteriors.Statistics and Computing32852022
 19 articleAdvanced topics in Sliced Inverse Regression.Journal of Multivariate Analysis1882022, 104852
 20 articleFunctional estimation of extreme conditional expectiles.Econometrics and Statistics 21January 2022, 131158
 21 articleNonparametric extreme conditional expectile estimation.Scandinavian Journal of Statistics491March 2022, 78115
 22 articleOn automatic bias reduction for extreme expectile estimation.Statistics and Computing32August 2022, 64
 23 articleInverting brain grey matter models with likelihoodfree inference: a tool for trustable cytoarchitecture measurements.Journal of Machine Learning for Biomedical ImagingMay 2022, 127
 24 articleFast Bayesian Inversion for high dimensional inverse problems.Statistics and Computing3231March 2022
 25 articleAutomated Quantification of Brain Lesion Volume From Posttrauma MR DiffusionWeighted Images.Frontiers in Neurology12February 2022, 740603
 26 articleSubtle anomaly detection: Application to brain MRI analysis of <i>de novo</i> Parkinsonian patients.Artificial Intelligence in Medicine125March 2022, 102251
 27 articleGlobal implicit function theorems and the online ExpectationMaximisation algorithm.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics642June 2022, 255281
 28 articleA Festschrift for Geoff McLachlan.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics642June 2022, 111  116
 29 articleHidden SemiMarkov Models to Segment Reading Phases from Eye Movements.Journal of Eye Movement Research154September 2022, 5
 30 articleThe impact of asteroid shapes and topographies on their reflectance spectroscopy.Icarus376April 2022, 114806:124
 31 articleUnraveling the functional attributes of the language connectome: crucial subnetworks, flexibility and variability.NeuroImage263November 2022, 119672
 32 articleFunctional Brain Dysconnectivity in Parkinson's Disease: A 5Year Longitudinal Study.Movement Disorders377July 2022, 14441453
International peerreviewed conferences
 33 inproceedingsGénération de modèles graphiques.GRETSI 2022  XXVIIIème Colloque francophone de traitement du signal et des imagesNancy, France2022, 13
 34 inproceedingsEffect of filtering on the evaluation of dynamic functional connectivity and application to data from functional MRI of rats.28e Colloque sur le traitement du signal et des imagesGretsi 2022  28° Colloque sur le traitement du signal et des imagesNancy, FranceSeptember 2022
 35 inproceedingsBeyond Voxel Prediction Uncertainty: Identifying brain lesions you can trust.Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceiMIMIC 2022  Workshop on Interpretability of Machine Intelligence in Medical Image Computing13611Singapore, SingaporeOctober 2022, 6170
 36 inproceedingsAn online MinorizationMaximization algorithm.17th Conference of the International Federation of Classification SocietiesProceedings of the 17th Conference of the International Federation of Classification SocietiesPorto, PortugalJuly 2022
 37 inproceedingsA PreScreening Approach for Faster Bayesian Network Structure Learning.ECMLPKDD 2022  European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in DatabasesECMLPKDDGrenoble, FranceSeptember 2022, 116
Conferences without proceedings
 38 inproceedingsOn the consistency of Bayesian nonparametric mixtures for the number of clusters.ISBA 2022  World Meeting International Society for Bayesian AnalysisMontreal, CanadaJune 2022
 39 inproceedingsA refined Weissman estimator for extreme quantiles.EcoSta 2022  5th International Conference on Econometrics and StatisticsKyoto, JapanJune 2022
 40 inproceedingsA refined Weissman estimator for extreme quantiles.Compstat 2022  24th International Conference on Computational StatisticsBologna, ItalyAugust 2022
 41 inproceedingsEVGAN: Simulation of extreme events with ReLU neural networks.EcoSta 2022  5th International Conference on Econometrics and StatisticsKyoto, JapanJune 2022
 42 inproceedingsEstimation of extreme quantiles from heavytailed distributions with neural networks.CMStatistics 2022  15th International Conference of the ERCIM WG on Computational and Methodological StatisticsLondon, United KingdomDecember 2022
 43 inproceedingsPlanetGLLiM: software for scalable Bayesian analysis of multidimensional data in astrophysics.Journées de l'Action Spécifique Numérique Astrophysique (ASNUM 2022)Lyon, FranceDecember 2022
 44 inproceedingsExtreme partial leastsquares.EcoSta 2022  5th International Conference on Econometrics and StatisticsKyoto, JapanJune 2022
 45 inproceedingsA refined extreme quantiles estimator of Weibull taildistributions.CMStatistics 2022  15th International Conference of the ERCIM WG on Computational and Methodological StatisticsLondon, United KingdomDecember 2022
 46 inproceedingsAutomatic learning of functional summary statistics for approximate Bayesian computation.O'Bayes 2022  Objective Bayes Methodology ConferenceSanta Cruz, United StatesSeptember 2022
 47 inproceedingsLearning approaches for Bayesian inverse problems.UGAMcMaster joint workshop 2022Hamilton, CanadaJune 2022
 48 inproceedingsMixture of expert posterior surrogates for approximate Bayesian computation.SFdS 2022  53èmes Journées de Statistique de la Société Française de StatistiqueLyon, FranceJune 2022, 16
 49 inproceedingsOnline Majorization Minimization algorithms.CIRM Workshop on Computational Methods for Unifying Multiple Statistical Analyses (Fusion)Luminy, FranceOctober 2022
 50 inproceedingsSimulation based inference for high dimensional inverse problems: application to magnetic resonance fingerprinting.Colloque Intelligence Artificielle et santé : approches interdisciplinaires 2022Nantes, FranceJune 2022
 51 inproceedingsSimulationbased approaches to Bayesian inverse problems.ICMS workshop on Interfacing Bayesian statistics, machine learning, applied analysis, and blind and semiblind imaging inverse problemsEdimburgh, United KingdomJanuary 2023
 52 inproceedingsSummary statistics and discrepancy measures for approximate Bayesian computation via surrogate posteriors.BayesComp 2023Levi, FinlandMarch 2023
 53 inproceedingsLargeScale Correlation Screening Under Dependence for Brain Functional Connectivity Inference.JSM 2022  Joint Statistical MeetingsWashington, United StatesAugust 2022
 54 inproceedingsClusteringBased Intergroup Correlation Estimation.ICSDS 2022 IMS International Conference on Statistics and Data ScienceFlorence, ItalyDecember 2022
 55 inproceedingsFast Uncertainty Quantification for Deep Learningbased MR Brain Segmentation.EGC 2022  Conference francophone pour l'Extraction et la Gestion des ConnaissancesBlois, FranceJanuary 2022, 112
 56 inproceedingsMultiScale Evaluation of Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Deep Learning based MRI Segmentation.ISMRMESMRMB & ISMRT 2022  31st Joint Annual Meeting International Society for Magnetic Resonance in MedecineLondon, United KingdomMay 2022, 13
 57 inproceedingsNeural Posterior Estimation of hierarchical models in neuroscience.GRETSI 2022  XXVIIIème Colloque Francophone de Traitement du Signal et des ImagesNancy, FranceSeptember 2022, 13
 58 inproceedingsValidation Diagnostics for SBI algorithms based on Normalizing Flows.NeurIPS 2022  the 36th conference on Neural Information Processing Systems  Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences workshopNew Orleans, United StatesNovember 2022, 17
 59 inproceedingsA local version of Rhat for MCMC convergence diagnostic.SFdS 2022  53èmes Journées de Statistique de la Société Française de StatistiqueLyon, FranceJune 2022, 16
 60 inproceedingsImproving MCMC convergence diagnostic with a local version of Rhat.CMStatistics 2022  15th International Conference of the ERCIM WG on Computational and Methodological StatisticsLondon, United KingdomDecember 2022
 61 inproceedingsOn the use of a local Rhat to improve MCMC convergence diagnostic.Energy Forecasting Innovation Conference 2022Londres, United KingdomMay 2022
 62 inproceedingsModel selection by penalization in mixture of experts models with a nonasymptotic approach.JDS 2022  53èmes Journées de Statistique de la Société Française de Statistique (SFdS)Lyon, FranceJune 2022, 16
 63 inproceedingsAdvanced topics in Sliced Inverse Regression V2.JMVA 2022  50th Anniversary JubileeVirtual Meeting, United StatesApril 2022
 64 inproceedingsExtreme conditional expectile estimation in heavytailed heteroscedastic regression models.Insurance Data Science Conference 2022Milan, ItalyJune 2022, 165
 65 inproceedingsImposing Gaussian PreActivations in a Neural Network.JDS 2022  53es Journées de Statistique de la Société Française de Statistiques (SFdS)Lyon, FranceJune 2022
Edition (books, proceedings, special issue of a journal)
 66 proceedingsL.Louise AlamichelJ.Julyan ArbelD.Daria BystrovaG.Guillaume Kon Kam KingBayesian nonparametric mixtures inconsistency for the number of clusters.June 2022
Reports & preprints
 67 miscWhittle estimation with (quasi)analytic wavelets.June 2022
 68 miscBayesian mixture models (in)consistency for the number of clusters.November 2022
 69 miscEstimation of extreme quantiles from heavytailed distributions with neural networks.2022
 70 reportEstimation of upper bounds for return levels: Methodology and illustrations on univariate random sequences.Inria  Research Centre Grenoble – RhôneAlpesFebruary 2022
 71 miscConservation laws for under determined systems of differential equations.February 2022
 72 miscTrustworthy clinical AI solutions: a unified review of uncertainty quantification in deep learning models for medical image analysis.October 2022
 73 miscExtremum conditions for functionals involving higher derivatives of several variable vector valued functions.February 2022

74
miscOn the use of a local
$\stackrel{}{R}$ to improve MCMC convergence diagnostic.March 2022  75 miscReparameterization of extreme value framework for improved Bayesian workflow.October 2022
 76 miscQuantifying the overall effect of biotic interactions on species distributions along environmental gradients.January 2023
 77 reportUnsupervised scalable anomaly detection: application to medical imaging.Inria Grenoble  RhôneAlpes; Grenoble Institut des neurosciencesOctober 2022, 143
 78 miscCold Posteriors through PACBayes.September 2022
 79 misc Gaussian PreActivations in Neural Networks: Myth or Reality? December 2022
Other scientific publications
 80 inproceedingsBayesian mixture models (in)consistency for the number of clusters.13th Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP) conferencePuerto Varas, ChileOctober 2022
 81 inproceedingsNodal statisticsbased structural pattern detection for graph collections characterization.Conference of Complex SystemPalma de Mallorca, SpainOctober 2022
 82 inproceedingsA Local Version of R to Improve MCMC Convergence Diagnostic.BAYSM 2022  Bayesian Young Statisticians MeetingMontréal, CanadaJune 2022
 83 inproceedingsA Local Version of Rhat to Improve MCMC Convergence Diagnostic.ISBA 2022  World Meeting of the International Society for Bayesian AnalysisMontréal, CanadaJune 2022, 11
12.3 Other
Scientific popularization
 84 articleA nonasymptotic approach for model selection via penalization in highdimensional mixture of experts models.Electronic Journal of Statistics 162September 2022, 4742  4822
12.4 Cited publications
 85 techreportComprendre un processus cognitif grâce à l’analyse statistique du mouvement des yeux.Interstices, INRIA, hal035051132021
 86 bookModelling Extremal Events.33Applications of MathematicsSpringerVerlag1997
 87 bookNonparametric Functional Data Analysis: Theory and Practice.Springer Series in Statistics, Springer2006
 88 phdthesisConstruction et apprentissage statistique de modèles autoassociatifs nonlinéaires. Application à l'identification d'objets déformables en radiographie. Modélisation et classification.Université de CeryPontoiseoctobre 1996
 89 articleSliced inverse regression for dimension reduction.Journal of the American Statistical Association861991, 316327
 90 articleBayesian nonparametric priors for hidden Markov random fields.Statistics and Computing302020, 10151035
 91 articleUsing hidden Markov model to uncover processing states from eye movements in information search tasks.Cognitive Systems Research94Oct 2008, 237251