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Section: Scientific Foundations

Fluid flow analysis and modeling

Turbulent fluid flows involved in environmental or industrial applications are complex. In fluid mechanics laboratories, canonical turbulent shear flows have been studied for many years and a relatively clear picture of their underlying structure exists. However, the direct applicability of these efforts to real relevant flows, which often occur in complex geometries and in the presence of multiple non canonical influences, like cross-shear, span wise non-uniform and thermal stratification, is still unknown. In addition, the turbulence can be characterized by Reynolds number ranging between 10 3 and 10 4 , corresponding to transitional regime for which the use of classical turbulence models is limited.

In this context, we have performed research studies on turbulent shear flows of low velocities by tackling crucial topics of measurements, analysis and modeling of environmental and industrial flows in presence of non-canonical influences. This concerns more precisely the study of the interaction between a mixing layer and circular cylinder wake flow, the study of wake flow with span wise non uniformity, the study of mixing layer under the influence of thermal stratification and the study of mixing layer forced between non-uniform flows. The analysis of these flows has required the design of adequate dynamical models, using proper orthogonal decomposition and Galerkin projection. Understanding issues such as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer involved in these shear flows provides meaningful information for the control of relevant engineering flows and the design of new technologies. To investigate more thoroughly these complex flows numerical and experimental tools have been designed. An immersed boundary method was proposed to mimic complex geometries into Direct Numerical simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) codes. A novel anemometer has been designed and implemented for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature in air flows with a single hot-wire probe.

Mixing layer wake interaction

We have investigated the vortex shedding of a circular cylinder immersed in a plane turbulent mixing layer. For a centre span Reynolds number of 7500, the wake flow splits into three regions: a high-velocity wake, a low-velocity wake and a region of interaction in the middle span of the body. A strong unsteady secondary flow is observed, and explained with span wise base pressure gradients. Unexpected features are found for formation length and the base pressure along the span of the cylinder. In the high-velocity side, where the local Reynolds number is the highest, the formation length is longest. Based on the formation length measurements it was shown that as a function of the centre span Reynolds number, the wake flows behaves as circular cylinder in uniform flow. Three cells with a constant frequency with adjacent dislocations are observed. For each cell, a shedding mode was suggested. The relation of the secondary flow to the frequencies was examined. All the observations were analyzed by analogical reasoning with other flows. This pointed out the action of the secondary flow in the high-velocity side regarded as a wake interference mechanism.

Low order complex flow modeling

We have proposed improvements to the construction of low order dynamical systems (LODS) for incompressible turbulent external flows. The reduced model is obtained by means of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) basis extracted through a truncated singular value decomposition of the flow auto-correlation matrix built from noisy PIV experimental velocity measurements. The POD modes are then used to formulate a reduced dynamical system that contains the main features of the flow. This low order dynamical system (LODS) is obtained through a Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes Equations on the POD basis. Usually, the resulting system of ordinary differential equations presents stability problems due to modes truncation and numerical uncertainties, especially when working on experimental data. The technique we proposed relies on an optimal control approach to estimate the dynamical system coefficients and its initial condition. This allows us to recover a reliable and stable spatio-temporal reconstruction of the large scales of the flow. The technique has been assessed on the near wake behind a cylinder observed through very noisy PIV measurement. It has been also evaluated for configurations involving a rotating cylinder.

Studies on complex 3D dynamical behavior resulting from the interaction between a plane mixing layer and the wake of a cylinder have been also investigated using POD representation, applied to data from two synchronized 2D PIV systems (Dual-plane PIV). This approach allowed us to construct a 3D-POD representation. An analysis of the correlations shows different length scales in the regions dominated by wake like structures and shear layer type structures [2] . In order to characterize the particular organization in the plane of symmetry, a Galerkin projection from a slice POD has been performed. This led to a low-dimensional dynamical system that allowed the analysis of the relationship between the dominant frequencies. This study led to a reconstruction of the dominant periodic motion suspected from previous studies [43] . This work allowed us to make a link between the three-dimensional organization and the secondary unsteady motion from the low velocity side to the high velocity side of the mixing layer, appearing in this highly 3D flow configuration.

Direct and Large Eddy simulations of complex flows

We have proposed a direct forcing method better suited to the use of compact finite difference schemes in Direct Numerical Simulation. The new forcing creates inside the body an artificial flow preserving the no-slip condition at the surface but reducing the step-like change of the velocity derivatives across the immersed boundary. This modification led to improve results both qualitatively and quantitatively for conventional and complex flow geometries [53] .

Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations have been performed for vortex shedding behind cylinders. We focused in particular on cases for which the body diameter and the incoming flow involved span wise linear non-uniformity. Four configurations were considered: the shear flow, the tapered cylinder and their combinations, which gave rise namely to the adverse and aiding cases. In contrast with the observations of other investigators, these computations highlighted distinct vortical features between the shear case and the tapered case. In addition, it was observed that the shear case and the adverse case (respectively the tapered and aiding case), yielded similarities in flow topology. This phenomenon was explained by the span wise variations of the ratio of mean velocity and the cylinder diameter which seemed to govern these flows. Indeed, it was observed that large span wise variations of U/D seemed to enhance three-dimensionality, through the appearance of vortex-adhesions and dislocations. Span wise cellular pattern of vortex shedding were identified. Their modifications in cell size, junction position and number were correlated with the variation of U/D. In the Lee side of the obstacle a wavy secondary motion was identified. Induced secondary flow due to the bending of Karman vortices in the vicinity of vortex-adhesion and dislocations was suggested to explain this result [52] .

LES and experimental wake flow database

We contributed to the study of flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=3900. Although this classical flow is widely documented in the literature, especially for this precise Reynolds number, which leads to a sub critical flow regime, there is no consensus about the turbulence statistics immediately just behind the obstacle. This flow has been studied both numerically with Large Eddy Simulation and experimentally with Hot-Wire Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry. The numerical simulation has been performed using high-order schemes and the specific Immersed Boundary Method previously mentioned. We focused on turbulence statistics and power spectra in the near wake up to 10 diameters. Statistical estimation is shown to need large integration times increasing the computational cost and leading to an uncertainty of about 10% for most flow characteristics considered in this study. The present numerical and experimental results are found to be in good agreement with previous Large Eddy Simulation data. Our study has exhibited significant differences compared with the experimental data found in the literature. The obtained results attenuate previous numerical-experimental controversy for this type of flows [11] .

Simultaneous velocity temperature measurements in turbulent flows

We have worked on the design of a novel anemometer for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature in airflows with a single hot wire probe. The principle of periodically varying the overheat ratio of the wire has been selected and applied through a tunable electronic chain. Specific methods were developed for the calibration procedure and the signal processing. The accuracy of the measurements was assessed by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. Accurate results were provided for two types of turbulent non-isothermal flows, a coaxial heated jet and a low speed thermal mixing. The particular interest of the synchronization of the two measurements has been emphasized during the PhD thesis of T. Ndoye.

A new dynamic calibration technique has been developed for hot-wire probes. The technique permits, in a short time range, the combined calibration of velocity, temperature and direction calibration of single and multiple hot-wire probes. The calibration and measurements uncertainties were modeled, simulated and controlled, in order to reduce their estimated values.