## Section: New Results

### Development of semi-Lagrangian methods

Participants : Adnane Hamiaz, Michel Mehrenberger, Christophe Steiner.

#### Gyroaverage operator for a polar mesh

A direct method is proposed in [17] in the space configuration for the computation of the gyroaverage operator. It consists in integrating on the gyrocircles using interpolation operators (Hermite or cubic splines); see also [2] . Numerical comparisons with a standard method based on a Padé approximation are performed: (i) with analytical solutions; (ii) considering the 4D drift-kinetic model with one Larmor radius and (iii) on the classical linear DIII-D benchmark case. In particular, we show that in the context of a drift-kinetic simulation, the proposed method has similar computational cost as the standard method and its precision is independent of the radius. Extension to the quasi neutral equation has begun on a 4D model with one Larmor radius. We can exhibit some specific situations where the new method leads to more accurate results and we observe as predicted that the instability growth rate is stronger than for the Padé approximation. On the other hand, we have to face with more oscillations (e.g. on the boundary) of the new operator, which does not permit to replace the Padé approximation. Promising higher order Padé approximation are envisaged for the future.

#### Semi-Lagrangian simulations on curvilinear grids

Semi-Lagrangian schemes often deal with cartesian mesh; the extension to curvilinear grids is important in order to be able to deal with specific geometries and also for adapting the grid to save computational effort. This study is part of a general work on adding curvilinear capabilities for the simulation of drift kinetic and gyrokinetic equations in a semi-Lagrangian framework, and is in current development in the SeLaLib library.

Thus, in [28] semi-Lagrangian guiding center simulations are performed on sinusoidal perturbations of cartesian grids, thanks to the use of a B-spline finite element solver for the Poisson equation and the classical backward semi-Lagrangian method (BSL) for the advection. We are able to reproduce the standard Kelvin-Helmholtz instability test on such grids. When the perturbation leads to a strong distorted mesh, we observe that the solution differs if one takes standard numerical parameters that are used in the cartesian reference case. We can recover good results together with correct mass conservation, by diminishing the time step.

#### Field aligned semi-Lagrangian schemes

In [23] we introduce field aligned interpolation for Semi-Lagrangian schemes, by adapting a method developed by Hariri-Ottaviani to the semi-Lagrangian context. This approach is validated on the constant oblique advection equation and on a 4D drift kinetic model with oblique magnetic field in cylindrical geometry. The strength of this method is that one can reduce the number of points in the longitudinal direction. Extension to tokamak conguration in toroidal geometry is the next step of this study.

#### KEEN wave simulations, high order time splitting, non-uniform cubic splines

KEEN waves are non-stationary, nonlinear, self-organized asymptotic states in Vlasov plasmas (see [3] ). They lie outside the precepts of linear theory or perturbative analysis, unlike electron plasma waves or ion acoustic waves. Steady state, nonlinear constructs such as BGK modes also do not apply. The range in velocity that is strongly perturbed by KEEN waves depends on the amplitude and duration of the ponderomotive force generated by two crossing laser beams, for instance, used to drive them. Smaller amplitude drives manage to devolve into multiple highly-localized vorticlets, after the drive is turned off, and may eventually succeed to coalesce into KEEN waves. Fragmentation once the drive stops, and potential eventual remerger, is a hallmark of the weakly driven cases. A fully formed (more strongly driven) KEEN wave has one dominant vortical core. But it also involves fine scale complex dynamics due to shedding and merging of smaller vortical structures with the main one. Shedding and merging of vorticlets are involved in either case, but at different rates and with different relative importance. The narrow velocity range in which one must maintain sufficient resolution in the weakly driven cases, challenges fixed velocity grid numerical schemes. What is needed is the capability of resolving locally in velocity while maintaining a coarse grid outside the highly perturbed region of phase space. We here report on a new Semi-Lagrangian Vlasov-Poisson solver based on conservative non-uniform cubic splines in velocity that tackles this problem head on. An additional feature of our approach is the use of a new high-order time-splitting scheme which allows much longer simulations per computational effort. This is needed for low amplitude runs. There, global coherent structures take a long time to set up, such as KEEN waves, if they do so at all. The new code's performance is compared to uniform grid simulations and the advantages are quantified. The birth pains associated with weakly driven KEEN waves are captured in these simulations. Canonical KEEN waves with ample drive are also treated using these advanced techniques. They will allow the efficient simulation of KEEN waves in multiple dimensions, which will be tackled next, as well as generalizations to Vlasov-Maxwell codes. These are essential for pursuing the impact of KEEN waves in high energy density plasmas and in inertial confinement fusion applications. More generally, one needs a fully-adaptive grid in- phase-space method which could handle all small vorticlet dynamics whether pealing or remerging. Such fully adaptive grids would have to be computed sparsely in order to be viable. This two-velocity grid method is a concrete and fruitful step in that direction.

#### Conservative semi-Lagrangian scheme

While developing a new semi-Lagrangian solver, the gap between a linear Landau run in 1D-1D and a 5D gyrokinetic simulation in toroidal geometry is quite huge. Intermediate test cases are welcome for testing the code. A new fully two-dimensional conservative semi-Lagrangian (CSL) method is presented in [6] and is validated on 2D polar geometries. We consider here as building block, a 2D guiding-center type equation on an annulus and apply it on two test cases. First, we revisit a 2D test case previously done with a PIC approach and detail the boundary conditions. Second, we consider a 4D drift-kinetic slab simulation. In both cases, the new method appears to be a good alternative to deal with this type of models since it improves the lack of mass conservation of the standard semi-Lagrangian (BSL) method.