## Section: Research Program

### Prediction on Graphs and Scalability

As stated in the previous sections, graphs as complex objects provide a rich representation of data. Often enough the data is only partially available and the graph representation is very helpful in predicting the unobserved elements. We are interested in problems where the complete structure of the graph needs to be recovered and only a fraction of the links is observed. The link prediction problem falls into this category. We are also interested in the recommendation and link classification problems which can be seen as graphs where the structure is complete but some labels on the links (weights or signs) are missing. Finally we are also interested in labeling the nodes of the graph, with class or cluster memberships or with a real value, provided that we have (some information about) the labels for some of the nodes.

The semi-supervised framework will be also considered. A midterm research plan is to study how graph regularization models help for structured prediction problems. This question will be studied in the context of NLP tasks, as noted in Section 3.2, but we also plan to develop original machine learning algorithms that have a more general applicability. Inputs are networks whose nodes (texts) have to be labeled by structures. We assume that structures lie in some manifold and we want to study how labels can propagate in the network. One approach is to find a smooth labeling function corresponding to an harmonic function on both manifolds in input and output.

Scalability is one of the main issues in the design of new prediction algorithms working on networked data. It has gained more and more importance in recent years, because of the growing size of the most popular networked data that are now used by millions of people. In such contexts, learning algorithms whose computational complexity scales quadratically, or slower, in the number of considered data objects (usually nodes or edges, depending on the task) should be considered impractical.

These observations lead to the idea of using graph sparsification techniques in order to work on a part of the original network for getting results that can be easily extended and used for the whole original input. A sparsified version of the original graph can often be seen as a subset of the initial input, i.e. a suitably selected input subgraph which forms the training set (or, more in general, it is included in the training set). This holds even for the active setting. A simple example could be to find a spanning tree of the input graph, possibly using randomization techniques, with properties such that we are allowed to obtain interesting results for the initial graph dataset. We have started to explore this research direction for instance in [46].

At the level of mathematical foundations, the key issue to be addressed in the study of (large-scale) random networks also concerns the segmentation of network data into sets of independent and identically distributed observations. If we identify the data sample with the whole network, as it has been done in previous approaches [37], we typically end up with a set of observations (such as nodes or edges) which are highly interdependent and hence overly violate the classic i.i.d. assumption. In this case, the data scale can be so large and the range of correlations can be so wide, that the cost of taking into account the whole data and their dependencies is typically prohibitive. On the contrary, if we focus instead on a set of subgraphs independently drawn from a (virtually infinite) target network, we come up with a set of independent and identically distributed observations—namely the subgraphs themselves, where subgraph sampling is the underlying ergodic process [28]. Such an approach is one principled direction for giving novel statistical foundations to random network modeling. At the same time, because one shifts the focus from the whole network to a set of subgraphs, complexity issues can be restricted to the number of subgraphs and their size. The latter quantities can be controlled much more easily than the overall network size and dependence relationships, thus allowing to tackle scalability challenges through a radically redesigned approach.

Another way to tackle scalability problems is to exploit the inherent decentralized nature of very large graphs. Indeed, in many situations very large graphs are the abstract view of the digital activities of a very large set of users equipped with their own device. Nowadays, smartphones, tablets and even sensors have storage and computation power and gather a lot of data that serve to analytics, prediction, suggestion and personalized recommendation. Gathering all user data in large data centers is costly because it requires oversized infrastructures with huge energy consumption and large bandwith networks. Even though cloud architectures can optimize such infrastructures, data concentration is also prone to security leaks, lost of privacy and data governance for end users. The alternative we have started to develop in Magnet is to devise decentralized, private and personalized machine learning algorithms so that they can be deployed in the personal devices. The key challenges are therefore to learn in a collaborative way in a network of learners and to preserve privacy and control on personal data.