## Section: New Results

### Statistical analysis of time series

#### Change Point Analysis

**Nonparametric multiple change point estimation in highly dependent time series**, [18]

Given a heterogeneous time-series sample, the objective is to find points in time, called change points, where the probability distribution generating the data has changed. The data are assumed to have been generated by arbitrary unknown stationary ergodic distributions. No modelling, independence or mixing assumptions are made. A novel, computationally efficient, nonparametric method is proposed, and is shown to be asymptotically consistent in this general framework. The theoretical results are complemented with experimental evaluations.

#### Clustering Time Series, Online and Offline

**Consistent Algorithms for Clustering Time Series**, [19]

The problem of clustering is considered for the case where every point is a time series. The time series are either given in one batch (offline setting), or they are allowed to grow with time and new time series can be added along the way (online setting). We propose a natural notion of consistency for this problem, and show that there are simple, com-putationally efficient algorithms that are asymptotically consistent under extremely weak assumptions on the distributions that generate the data. The notion of consistency is as follows. A clustering algorithm is called consistent if it places two time series into the same cluster if and only if the distribution that generates them is the same. In the considered framework the time series are allowed to be highly dependent, and the dependence can have arbitrary form. If the number of clusters is known, the only assumption we make is that the (marginal) distribution of each time series is stationary ergodic. No paramet-ric, memory or mixing assumptions are made. When the number of clusters is unknown, stronger assumptions are provably necessary, but it is still possible to devise nonparametric algorithms that are consistent under very general conditions. The theoretical findings of this work are illustrated with experiments on both synthetic and real data.

#### Automata Learning

**PAC learning of Probabilistic Automaton based on the Method of Moments**, [36]

Probabilitic Finite Automata (PFA) are gener-ative graphical models that define distributions with latent variables over finite sequences of symbols, a.k.a. stochastic languages. Traditionally , unsupervised learning of PFA is performed through algorithms that iteratively improves the likelihood like the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. Recently, learning algorithms based on the so-called Method of Moments (MoM) have been proposed as a much faster alternative that comes with PAC-style guarantees. However, these algorithms do not ensure the learnt automata to model a proper distribution , limiting their applicability and preventing them to serve as an initialization to iterative algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new MoM-based algorithm with PAC-style guarantees that learns automata defining proper distributions. We assess its performances on synthetic problems from the PAutomaC challenge and real datasets extracted from Wikipedia against previous MoM-based algorithms and EM algorithm.

#### Online Kernel and Graph-Based Methods

**Analysis of Nyström method with sequential ridge leverage score sampling**, [26]

Large-scale kernel ridge regression (KRR) is limited by the need to store a large kernel matrix Kt. To avoid storing the entire matrix Kt, Nyström methods subsample a subset of columns of the kernel matrix, and efficiently find an approximate KRR solution on the reconstructed Kt . The chosen subsampling distribution in turn affects the statistical and computational tradeoffs. For KRR problems, [15, 1] show that a sampling distribution proportional to the ridge leverage scores (RLSs) provides strong reconstruction guarantees for Kt. While exact RLSs are as difficult to compute as a KRR solution, we may be able to approximate them well enough. In this paper, we study KRR problems in a sequential setting and introduce the INK-ESTIMATE algorithm, that incrementally computes the RLSs estimates. INK-ESTIMATE maintains a small sketch of Kt, that at each step is used to compute an intermediate estimate of the RLSs. First, our sketch update does not require access to previously seen columns, and therefore a single pass over the kernel matrix is sufficient. Second, the algorithm requires a fixed, small space budget to run dependent only on the effective dimension of the kernel matrix. Finally, our sketch provides strong approximation guarantees on the distance $\left|\right|Kt-{Kt\left|\right|}^{2}$ , and on the statistical risk of the approximate KRR solution at any time, because all our guarantees hold at any intermediate step.