Section: New Results

Turbulence models

Participants : Alain Dervieux, Bruno Koobus, Stephen Wornom, Maria-Vittoria Salvetti [University of Pisa] .

Modeling turbulence is an essential aspect of CFD. The purpose of our work in hybrid RANS/LES (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes / Large Eddy Simulation) is to develop new approaches for industrial applications of LES-based analyses. In the applications targetted (aeronautics, hydraulics), the Reynolds number can be as high as several tens of millions, far too high for pure LES models. However, certain regions in the flow can be predicted better with LES than with usual statistical RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) models. These are mainly vortical separated regions as assumed in one of the most popular hybrid models, the hybrid Detached Eddy Simulation model. Here, “hybrid” means that a blending is applied between LES and RANS. An important difference between a real life flow and a wind tunnel or basin is that the turbulence of the flow upstream of each body is not well known.

The development of hybrid models, in particular DES in the litterature, has raised the question of the domain of validity of these models. According to theory, these models should not be applied to flow involving laminar boundary layers (BL). But industrial flows are complex flows and often present regions of laminar BL, regions of fully developed turbulent BL and regions of non-equilibrium vortical BL. It is then mandatory for industrial use that the new hybrid models give a reasonable prediction for all these types of flow. We concentrated on evaluating the behavior of hybrid models for laminar BL and for vortical wakes. While less predictive than pure LES on laminar BL, some hybrid models still give reasonable predictions for rather low Reynolds numbers.

This year, we have developed a new model relying on the hybridation of a DDES model based on a k-ϵ closure with our dynamic VMS model. This model shows improvement in most situations and in particular for laminar flows.

We have also addressed this year a challenging test case, the flow around tandem cylinders with a distance between the cylinders of 12 diameters. The accurate capture of the vortices traveling along this path of 12 diameters requires that the LES filter does not accumulate any dissipation along this trajactory. This is a noticeable property or our DVMS model. Further, the numerics need be as accurate as possible. We use a superconvergent approximation, up to fifth order accurate on Cartesian regions of the computational domain. This combination allowed for an accurate prediction of the drag of the second cylinder. This result has been presented at the workshop ETMM12 [12]