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Section: Application Domains

Large Computing Infrastructures

Supercomputers typically comprise thousands to millions of multi-core CPUs with GPU accelerators interconnected by complex interconnection networks that are typically structured as an intricate hierarchy of network switches. Capacity planning and management of such systems not only raises challenges in term of computing efficiency but also in term of energy consumption. Most legacy (SPMD) applications struggle to benefit from such infrastructure since the slightest failure or load imbalance immediately causes the whole program to stop or at best to waste resources. To scale and handle the stochastic nature of resources, these applications have to rely on dynamic runtimes that schedule computations and communications in an opportunistic way. Such evolution raises challenges not only in terms of programming but also in terms of observation (complexity and dynamicity prevents experiment reproducibility, intrusiveness hinders large scale data collection, ...) and analysis (dynamic and flexible application structures make classical visualization and simulation techniques totally ineffective and require to build on ad hoc information on the application structure).