Section: New Results
Stochastic models for extreme events
Hierarchical space-time modeling of exceedances
This novel approach is presented in this subsection but it is important to note that it also could has been presented in the subsection Forcing because the proposed method could be used as rainfall forcing and because it answers to some mentionned challenges.
The statistical modeling of space-time extremes in environmental applications is a valuable approach to understand complex dependencies in observed data and to generate realistic scenarios for impact models. Motivated by hourly rainfall data in Southern France presenting asymptotic independence, we propose in a joint work (J.N. Bacro, C. Gaetan, T. Opitz and G. Toulemonde) published in the Journal of the ASA  a novel hierarchical model for high threshold exceedances leading to asymptotic independence in space and time. Our approach is based on representing a generalized Pareto distribution as a Gamma mixture of an exponential distribution, enabling us to keep marginal distributions which are coherent with univariate extreme value theory. The key idea is to use a kernel convolution of a space-time Gamma random process based on influence zones defined as cylinders with an ellipsoidal basis to generate anisotropic spatio-temporal dependence in exceedances. Statistical inference is based on a composite likelihood for the observed censored excesses. The practical usefulness of our model is illustrated on the previously mentionned hourly precipitation data set from a region in Southern France. This work has also been presented by Gwladys Toulemonde in 2019 in two invited talks (EVA, Zagreb 2019; CMStatistics, ERCIM, London 2019), in one contributed international conference (ISI, Kuala Lumpur, 2019) and one seminar organized by the "Ecole Polytechnique" (Paris, 2019).
Extension of the XGumbel copula to the spatial framework
An extension of the XGumbel copula to the spatial framework has been developped. This work has been presented in the international conference Extreme Value Analysis (EVA 2019, Zagreb) and is currently under review . The XGumbel copula combines two Gumbel copulas with weight parameters, termed extra-parameters, taking values in the unit hyper-cube. In a multisite study, the copula dimension being the number of sites, the XGumbel copula quickly becomes over-parametrized. In addition, interpolation to ungauged locations is not easily achieved. We propose a spatial model for maxima that combines a spatial regression for GEV marginals built with a vector generalized linear model and the spatialized XGumbel copula defined thanks to a spatial mapping for the extra-parameters. The mapping is designed shaped as a disk according to bivariate properties of the XGumbel copula. An Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) scheme that seeks to reproduce upper tail dependence coefficients for distance classes is used to infer the parameters. The extension of the XGumbel copula to the spatial framework has been used to study annual maxima of daily precipitation totals at 177 gauged stations over a 57 year period in the French Mediterranean.