Section: New Results

Fundamental algorithms and structured polynomial systems

The Berlekamp–Massey–Sakata algorithm and the Scalar-FGLM algorithm both compute the ideal of relations of a multidimensional linear recurrent sequence. Whenever quering a single sequence element is prohibitive, the bottleneck of these algorithms becomes the computation of all the needed sequence terms. As such, having adaptive variants of these algorithms, reducing the number of sequence queries, becomes mandatory. A native adaptive variant of the Scalar-FGLM algorithm was presented by its authors, the so-called Adaptive Scalar-FGLM algorithm. In [3], our first contribution is to make the Berlekamp–Massey–Sakata algorithm more efficient by making it adaptive to avoid some useless relation test-ings. This variant allows us to divide by four in dimension 2 and by seven in dimension 3 the number of basic operations performed on some sequence family. Then, we compare the two adaptive algorithms. We show that their behaviors differ in a way that it is not possible to tweak one of the algorithms in order to mimic exactly the behavior of the other. We detail precisely the differences and the similarities of both algorithms and conclude that in general the Adaptive Scalar-FGLM algorithm needs fewer queries and performs fewer basic operations than the Adaptive Berlekamp–Massey–Sakata algorithm. We also show that these variants are always more efficient than the original algorithms.

The problem of finding m×s matrices (with ms) of rank r in a real affine subspace of dimension n has many applications in information and systems theory, where low rank is synonymous of structure and parsimony. In [8], we design computer algebra algorithms to solve this problem efficiently and exactly: the input are the rational coefficients of the matrices spanning the affine subspace as well as the expected maximum rank, and the output is a rational parametrization encoding a finite set of points that intersects each connected component of the low rank real algebraic set. The complexity of our algorithm is studied thoroughly. It is essentially polynomial in n+m(s-r) ; it improves on the state-of-the-art in the field. Moreover, computer experiments show the practical efficiency of our approach.

Gröbner bases is one the most powerful tools in algorithmic non-linear algebra. Their computation is an intrinsically hard problem with a complexity at least single exponential in the number of variables. However, in most of the cases, the polynomial systems coming from applications have some kind of structure. For example , several problems in computer-aided design, robotics, vision, biology , kinematics, cryptography, and optimization involve sparse systems where the input polynomials have a few non-zero terms. In [16], our approach to exploit sparsity is to embed the systems in a semigroup algebra and to compute Gröbner bases over this algebra. Up to now, the algorithms that follow this approach benefit from the sparsity only in the case where all the polynomials have the same sparsity structure, that is the same Newton polytope. We introduce the first algorithm that overcomes this restriction. Under regularity assumptions, it performs no redundant computations. Further, we extend this algorithm to compute Gröbner basis in the standard algebra and solve sparse polynomials systems over the torus ()n. The complexity of the algorithm depends on the Newton polytopes.

In [10], we consider the problem of approximating numerically the moments and the supports of measures which are invariant with respect to the dynamics of continuous- and discrete-time polynomial systems, under semialgebraic set constraints. First, we address the problem of approximating the density and hence the support of an invariant measure which is absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Then, we focus on the approximation of the support of an invariant measure which is singular with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Each problem is handled through an appropriate reformulation into a linear optimization problem over measures, solved in practice with two hierarchies of finite-dimensional semidefinite moment-sum-of-square relaxations, also called Lasserre hierarchies. Under specific assumptions, the first Lasserre hierarchy allows to approximate the moments of an absolutely continuous invariant measure as close as desired and to extract a sequence of polynomials converging weakly to the density of this measure. The second Lasserre hierarchy allows to approximate as close as desired in the Hausdorff metric the support of a singular invariant measure with the level sets of the Christoffel polynomials associated to the moment matrices of this measure. We also present some application examples together with numerical results for several dynamical systems admitting either absolutely continuous or singular invariant measures.